{adapted from Wikipedia}

What is antimicrobial resistance ?

Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to at least one antimicrobial drug in three or more antimicrobial categories. Antimicrobial categories are classifications of antimicrobial agents based on their mode of action and specific to target organisms[. The MDR types most threatening to public health are MDR bacteria that resist multiple antibiotics; other types include MDR viruses, parasites (resistant to multiple antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic drugs of a wide chemical variety).

Recognizing different degrees of MDR in bacteria, the terms extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) have been introduced. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) is the non-susceptibility of one bacteria species to all antimicrobial agents except in two or less antimicrobial categories. Within XDR, pandrug-resistant (PDR) is the non-susceptibility of bacteria to all antimicrobial agents in all antimicrobial categories. The definitions were published in 2011 in the journal Clinical Microbiology and Infection and are openly accessible.

 {Adapted from WHO}

Why is antimicrobial resistance a global concern?

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogens that have acquired new resistance mechanisms, leading to antimicrobial resistance, continues to threaten our ability to treat common infections. Especially alarming is the rapid global spread of multi- and pan-resistant bacteria (also known as “superbugs”) that cause infections that are not treatable with existing antimicrobial medicines such as antibiotics.

The clinical pipeline of new antimicrobials is dry. In 2019 WHO identified 32 antibiotics in clinical development that address the WHO list of priority pathogens, of which only six were classified as innovative. Furthermore, a lack of access to quality antimicrobials remains a major issue. Antibiotic shortages are affecting countries of all levels of development and especially in health- care systems.

Antibiotics are becoming increasingly ineffective as drug-resistance spreads globally leading to more difficult to treat infections and death. New antibacterials are urgently needed – for example, to treat carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections as identified in the WHO priority pathogen list. However, if people do not change the way antibiotics are used now, these new antibiotics will suffer the same fate as the current ones and become ineffective.

The cost of AMR to national economies and their health systems is significant as it affects productivity of patients or their caretakers through prolonged hospital stays and the need for more expensive and intensive care.  

Without effective tools for the prevention and adequate treatment of drug-resistant infections and improved access to existing and new quality-assured antimicrobials, the number of people for whom treatment is failing or who die of infections will increase. Medical procedures, such as surgery, including caesarean sections or hip replacements, cancer chemotherapy, and organ transplantation, will become more risky.

 

 

  1. Penicillinase synthesis controlled by infectious R factors in Enterobacteriaceae.;    Nature 1965 Oct 16;208(5007):239-41.

 

 

 

 

[Nature. 1965]

Virginiamycin mixture

Virginiamycin mixture (Virginiamycin M1 75% and S1 25%)
Molecular Formula
C43H49N7O10 + C28H35N3O7
M.W.
526.60
CAS number
11006-76-1
MSDS
Source
Streptomyces virginiae
Fermentek product Code
VIR-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White to yellow powder
White to biege powder
Purity by HPLC
≥90% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless to yellow solution at 5 mg/ml of Dichloromethane
Clear colorless to yellow solution at 10mg/ml of DMSO or Methanol
Names and identifiers

Synonyms:

  • Mikamycin (7CI)
  • Streptogramin (6CI)
  • Eskalin 500
  • Eskalin V
  • Lactrol
  • Lactrol XP
  • Livelong
  • Pyostacin
  • Pyostacine
  • Stafac
  • Stapyocine
  • Virgimycin
  • Virginiamycin
  • Virginiamycin complex

 Chemical names:

IUPAC:

RTECS#

EU number
234-244-6
Description

Virginiamycin is a streptogramin.  It is a combination of pristinamycin IIA and virginiamycin S1. 

Virginiamycin is a streptogramin antibiotic similar to pristinamycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. It is a combination of pristinamycin IIA and virginiamycin S1. (after Drugbank).

 It is used in bio-fuel industry and as cattle growth promoter.

InChl Key
MVTQIFVKRXBCHS-FHWPYUEJSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CCC1C(=O)N2CCCC2C(=O)N(C(C(=O)N3CCC(=O)CC3C(=O)NC(C(=O)OC(C(C(=O)N1)NC(=O)C4=C(C=CC=N4)O)C)C5=CC=CC=C5)CC6=CC=CC=C6)C.CC1C=CC(=O)NCC=CC(=CC(CC(=O)CC2=NC(=CO2)C(=O)N3CCC=C3C(=O)OC1C(C)C)O)C
Isomeric SMILES
CCC1C(=O)N2CCCC2C(=O)N(C(C(=O)N3CCC(=O)CC3C(=O)NC(C(=O)OC(C(C(=O)N1)NC(=O)C4=C(C=CC=N4)O)C)C5=CC=CC=C5)CC6=CC=CC=C6)C.CC1/C=C\C(=O)NC/C=C\C(=C/C(CC(=O)CC2=NC(=CO2)C(=O)N3CCC=C3C(=O)OC1C(C)C)O)\C
Solubility ( literature )

 Other data from literature:

  • Appearance:  Reddish-yellow powder
  • Melting Point:  136oC-137oC
 
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Hygroscopic substance.
Protect from moisture
Open carefully.
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Store under argon.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications
  • Virginiamycin is used in the fuel ethanol industry to prevent microbial contamination and in livestock to prevent and treat infections. (Drugbank)
  • According to a USDA study, antibiotics can save as much as 30% in feed costs among young swine. (Drugbank)
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Shipped at ambient temperature
Transport safety: Not Dangerous Goods; Not Regulated
Available since

Pyocyanin

Pyocyanin
Molecular Formula
C13H10N2O
M.W.
210.23
CAS number
85-66-5
MSDS
Source
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Fermentek product Code
PYO-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Blue powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear blue solution at 5mg/ml of Ethanol;
Clear blue solution at 5mg/ml of DMSO
Names and identifiers

Synonyms:

  • 5-Methyl-1(5H)-phenazinone
  • Pyocyanine
  • Sanasin
  • Sanazin

Chemical names:

IUPAC:

  • 5-Methylphenazin-1(5H)-one

RTECS#

 
EU number
687-347-7
Description

Pyocyanin is a blue, secondary metabolite froPseudomonas aeruginosa able to oxidise and reduce other molecules. 

InChl Key
YNCMLFHHXWETLD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CN1C2=CC=CC=C2N=C3C1=CC=CC3=O
Solubility ( literature )

(from literature) soluble in DMSO, acetone, chloroform, ethanol, 1+9 ethanol+Water mix.

Compound Classification

Blue-green pigment belonging to phenazine pigments

UNSPSC  41116100

E - Medical, Laboratory & Test Equipment & Supplies & Pharmaceuticals

  • 41000000 - Laboratory and Measuring and Observing and Testing Equipment
  • 41110000 - Measuring and observing and testing instruments
  • 41116100 - Manual test kits and quality controls and calibrators and standards
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Open carefully.
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Protect from moisture!
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Shipped at ambient temperature
Shipped in PP / PE bottle.
Transport safety: Not Dangerous Goods; Not Regulated
Available since
Title
MP from chemidplus
Value
133 degC
Signal to sort
P

Aloe-emodin

Aloe-emodin
Molecular Formula
C15H10O5
M.W.
270.24
CAS number
481-72-1
MSDS
Source
Aloe Vera (extracted from plant)
Fermentek product Code
ALO-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Brownish-orange powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
218°C-225°C
Solubility test
Clear orange solution at 50 mg/ml of DMSO
Names and identifiers

Synonyms:

* Aloe-emodin
* 9,10-Anthracenedione, 1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-
* 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-9,10-anthracenedione
* 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylanthraquinone
* 3-Hydroxymethylchrysazin
* Rhabarberone

 

RTECS : CB6712200

 

EU number
207-571-7
Description

Aloe-emodin is a hydroxyanthraquinone found naturally in Aloe vera and in other aloe plants. It exhibits antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. recently it gains interest as a candidate anti-cancer agent.

InChl Key
YDQWDHRMZQUTBA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Canonical SMILES
C1=CC2=C(C(=C1)O)C(=O)C3=C(C2=O)C=C(C=C3O)CO
Compound Classification

 An anthraquinone compound from Aloe Vera and other plants.

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Open carefully.
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications

Aloe-emodin is a drug candidate for cancer therapy.

  • It induces apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC15 cells ;
  • It exerts potent anticancer effects in MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines through activation of both apoptotic and autophagic pathways, sub-G1 cell cycle arrest and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential
  • It induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair gene expression in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells.
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Transport safety: Not Dangerous Goods; Not Regulated
Available since

Bafilomycin B1

Bafilomycin B1
Molecular Formula
C44H65NO13
M.W.
816.00
CAS number
88899-56-3
Source
Streptomyces sp.
Fermentek product Code
BFB-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥95% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear yellow solution at 5mg/ml Methanol ;
Clear yellow solution at 5mg/ml DMSO ;
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

  • Hygrolidin, 37-decarboxy-2-demethyl-37-[[(2-hydroxy-5-oxo-1-cyclopenten-1-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-methoxy-24-methyl
  • Setamycin
  • Bafilomycin B1

IUPAC Name

  • (5R)-2,4-Dideoxy-1-C-{(2S,3R,4S)-3-hydroxy-4-[(3S,4Z,9S,10S,11R)-10-hydroxy-3,15-dimethoxy-7,9,11,13-tetramethyl-16-oxooxacyclohexadeca-4,6,12,14-tetraen-2-yl]-2-pentanyl}-3-O-{(2E)-4-[(2-hydroxy-5-ox ;o-1-cyclopenten-1-yl)amino]-4-oxo-2-butenoyl}-5-isopropyl-4-methyl-α-D-threo-pentopyranose

 RTECS: NG8841000

EU number
635-481-1
Chemical name
Bafilomycin B1
Description

Bafilomycin B1 is a specific inhibitor of vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in animal cells, plant cells and microorganisms.

Bafilomycin B1  can prevent the re-acidification of synaptic vesicles once they have undergone exocytosis.

It displays Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antineoplastic, Immunosuppressive properties.

Bafilomycin B1 shares the same mode of action and activity as its more accessible Bafilomycin A1 analogue. Bafilomycin B1 is broadly active against bacteria, fungi, insects, nematodes and protozoans. Bafilomycin B1 has attracted interest as a potential antiosteoporotic agent in treating bone lytic diseases.

Bafilomycins have been considered as possible therapeutic agents in the treatment of gastritis.

InChl Key
KFUFLYSBMNNJTF-MZYUNMTESA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1CC(=CC=CC(C(OC(=O)C(=CC(=CC(C1O)C)C)OC)C(C)C(C(C)C2(CC(C(C(O2)C(C)C)C)OC(=O)C=CC(=O)NC3=C(CCC3=O)O)O)O)OC)C
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@H]1C/C(=C\C=C/[C@@H](C(OC(=O)/C(=C\C(=C/[C@H]([C@H]1O)C)\C)/OC)[C@@H](C)[C@H]([C@H](C)[C@]2(C[C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O2)C(C)C)C)OC(=O)/C=C/C(=O)NC3=C(CCC3=O)O)O)O)OC)/C
Solubility ( literature )

Reportedly soluble in ethanol, methanol, DMF or DMSO. Attention: may form methyl ketal on long term storage in methanol

Compound Classification

Macrolide antibiotic

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Protect from light !
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Store under argon.
shipped at ambient temperature. Stored under inert atmosphere.
Applications

Bafilomycins specificly  inhibit  vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in animal cells, plant cells and microorganisms. Bafilomycin A1 is useful in distinguishing among different types of ATPases. Bafilomycin A1 can prevent the re-acidification of synaptic vesicles once they have undergone exocytosis. Bafilomycin A1 and B1 significantly attenuate cerebellar granule neuron death resulting from agents that disrupt lysosome. As vacuolar ATPase inhibitors bafilomycins overcome Bcl-​xL-​mediated chemoresistance through restoration of a caspase-​independent apoptotic pathway.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
II or III but basic information is not credible, no quantitative data available
Title
Deleted CAS Numbers
Value
80112-34-1; used with name Setamycin only
Signal to sort
B

Fumitremorgin C

Fumitremorgin C
Molecular Formula
C22H25N3O3
M.W.
379.46
CAS number
118974-02-0
Source
Aspergillus sp.
Fermentek product Code
FUC-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Crystalline solid
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
255°C - 271°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml of
Methanol or Acetonitrile.
Names and identifiers

Synonyms:

Chemical names:

IUPAC:               (5aS,12S,14aS)-9-Methoxy-12-(2-methyl-1-propen-1-yl)-1,2,3,5a,6,11,12,14a-octahydro-5H,14H-pyrrolo[1'',2'':4',5']pyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-5,14-dione

RTECS#  UY8709670

EU number
Not listed
Chemical name
Fumitremorgin C
Description

Fumitremorgin C is a tremorgenic mycotoxin isolated from Aspergillus fumigatus. Recent research has recognized Fumitremorgin C as a potent and specific inhibitor of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) multidrug transporter. It reverses multidrug resistance mediated by BCRP and increases cytotoxicity of several anticancer agents in vitro.

InChl Key
DBEYVIGIPJSTOR-FHWLQOOXSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC(=CC1C2=C(CC3N1C(=O)C4CCCN4C3=O)C5=C(N2)C=C(C=C5)OC)C
Isomeric SMILES
CC(=C[C@H]1C2=C(C[C@@H]3N1C(=O)[C@@H]4CCCN4C3=O)C5=C(N2)C=C(C=C5)OC)C
Solubility ( literature )

Soluble in Ethanol, Methanol, DMF, DMSO Chloroform.

Negligible solubility ( 35 mg in 1 liter water @25°C) has been reported.

Compound Classification

Breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor

Mammalian cell cycle inhibitors

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Protect from light !
Open carefully.
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Not hazardous goods. Nor regulated
Signal to sort
F

Destruxin B

Destruxin B
Molecular Formula
C30H51N5O7
M.W.
593.76
CAS number
2503-26-6
Source
Metarhizium anisopliae
Fermentek product Code
DSB-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥96% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
230°C-240°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml of Dichloromethane; Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml of DMSO
Names and identifiers

Synonyms:

Chemical names:

IUPAC:

RTECS# HH1500100

EU number
not on EC
Description

natural product

 

 

InChl Key
GNBHVMBELHWUIF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CCC(C)C1C(=O)N(C(C(=O)N(C(C(=O)NCCC(=O)OC(C(=O)N2CCCC2C(=O)N1)CC(C)C)C)C)C(C)C)C
Compound Classification

chemical:

Natural cyclic depsipeptide 

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Protect from moisture
Open carefully.
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since

Bafilomycin A1

Bafilomycin A1
Molecular Formula
C35H58O9
M.W.
622.83
CAS number
88899-55-2
MSDS
Source
Streptomyces griseus
Fermentek product Code
BFA-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Yellow to white powder
Purity by HPLC
≥95% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
150°C-166°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless to yellow solution at 5mg/ml Methanol or DMSO
Names and identifiers

IUPAC Name: (3Z,5E,7R,8S,9S,11E,13E,15S,16R)-8-Hydroxy-16-[(1S,2R,3S)-2-hydroxy-1-methyl-3-[(2R,4R,5S,6R)-tetrahydro-2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-6-(1-methylethyl)-2H-pyran-2-yl]butyl]-3,15-dimethoxy-5,7,9,11-tetramethyloxacyclohexadeca-3,5,11,13-tetraen-2-one

EU number
621-324-4
Description

Bafilomycin A1 is toxic macrolide antibiotic acts as a specific inhibitor of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase. It acts as autophagy Inhibitor

InChl Key
XDHNQDDQEHDUTM-JQWOJBOSSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1CC(=CC=CC(C(OC(=O)C(=CC(=CC(C1O)C)C)OC)C(C)C(C(C)C2(CC(C(C(O2)C(C)C)C)O)O)O)OC)C
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@H]1C/C(=C/C=C/[C@@H]([C@H](OC(=O)/C(=C/C(=C/[C@H]([C@H]1O)C)/C)/OC)[C@@H](C)[C@H]([C@H](C)[C@]2(C[C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O2)C(C)C)C)O)O)O)OC)/C
Solubility ( literature )

Soluble in 100% ethanol, methanol or DMSO.

Compound Classification

Macrolide antibiotic

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Hygroscopic substance.
Protect from moisture
Protect from light !
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Store under argon.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications

Bafilomycin A1 is a specific inhibitor of vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in animal cells, plant cells and microorganisms. Bafilomycin A1 is useful in distinguishing among different types of ATPases. Bafilomycin A1 can prevent the re-acidification of synaptic vesicles once they have undergone exocytosis. Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antineoplastic, Immunosuppressive Bafilomycin A1 has been shown to decrease multi-drug resistance.

Bafilomycin A1, inhibits vacuolar-​ATPase.
It is a potassium ionophore that impairs mitochondrial functions.
It activates respiration of neuronal cells via uncoupling associated with flickering depolarization of mitochondria.
Bafilomycin A1 has been commonly used as a method of inhibition of infection by viruses known or suspected to follow the path of receptor-​mediated endocytosis and low-​pH-​mediated membrane fusion
Vacuolar ATPase inhibitors overcome Bcl-​xL-​mediated chemoresistance through restoration of a caspase-​independent apoptotic pathway.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Not hazardous for transport
Title
storage
Value
TRC,Merck: under inert gas+hygros+light
Signal to sort
B