Oligomycin is a group of Streptomyces macrolides that bind to the Oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP) at the F(o) subunits 6 and 9 which are found in the stalk of the F1F0-ATPase complex. This binding blocks proton conductance across the synthase complex and inhibits the synthesis of mitochondrial ATP. As an additional result, the proton pumps of the electron transport chain are unable to operate because the gradient becomes too... Read More
Fumitremorgin C (Tryptoquivaline) is a diketopiperazine secondary metabolite, produces by Aspergillus clavatus (Clardy et al, 1975), Aspergillus fumigatus (Cui et al, 1996) and Neosartorya fischeri (Nielsen et al, 1988).  Related compounds produced by these strains are verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and B.   Biological Activity – toxicity, inhibition and cancer   Neurotoxicity Fumitremorgins effect the central nervous system, and cause... Read More
Enniatins 21.06.2017
Review Enniatins are cyclohexadepsipeptides produces mainly by Fusarium species, but also by other fungi, as Verticillium and Halosarpheia (Sy-Cordero et al, 2012). Enniatin A was first isolated by Gaumann et al (1947). During the last decades, further 28 enniatins were discovered. The most common enniatins are Enniatin A, Enniatin A1, Enniatin B and Enniatin B1.   Occurrence and Toxicity Enniatins can be found in mould-infected cereals.... Read More
Curvularin is a fungul macrocyclic lactone, produced by several fungi, including Curvularia (Kamal et al., 1962) and Penicillium (Fennell et al, 1959). Meepagala et al (2016) found that Curvularin and Dehydrocurvularin isolated from Curvularia intermedia are phytotoxins, cause severve necrosis and though can be used as natural biopesticides. Recent research investigated the activity of (S)-Curvularin as an anti-inflammatory agent. (S)-... Read More