Ionophores are vast lipophilic materials proficient of reacting in exact proportion with metal ions (Ca2+, K+, H+, Na+), thereby functioning as a medium through which these ions can be transferred within a bimolecular lipid membrane. They are carboxylic polyether antibiotics, they are toxic to bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and higher organism and therefore fit into the category of antimicrobial compounds. They interrupt the ion concentration... Read More
Mycotoxins are defined as naturally occurring substances produced by filamentous fungi (moulds) that arouse toxic response when introduced in low amount to animals through a natural pathway. These fungi are referred to as “toxigenic” fungi. They grow naturally as a form of contaminants on some food crops majorly cereals, nuts and fruit. Conventionally, toxigenic fungi which contaminate crops have been grouped into two groups: “field” and “... Read More
Actinomycin D Actinomycin D  (Act D) is a natural chemopeptide which are isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces. Amongst Streptomyces bacteria, Streptomyces parvulus produces Act D with the highest antibiotic activities. It is also known as Dactinomycin or Actinomycin C1. The discovery of Actinomycin was in 1949 by Selman Waksman. Act D serves as an antibiotic, aside from the antibiotic purpose, it has been introduced as a cancer therapy. The... Read More
Aflatoxins Aflatoxins are naturally occurring secondary metabolite poisonous toxins that are produced by strains of fungi species Aspergillus worldwide. This toxin was discovered 30 years ago in England during a poisonous outbreak that led to the death of over 100,000 Turkeys. The word “Aflatoxins” originated from the name of one of the fungi producing it, Aspergillus flavus. They contaminate 25% food crops worldwide and therefore pose a serious... Read More