Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme (Sheldon). It contaminants corn and corn-products and it is toxic to animals and human. Fumonisin was discovered at about 1988 with A, B, C and P series reported. Series B is the most important series with B1, B2, and B3. F. moniliforme MRC 826 present in corn were employed in the isolation of fumonisins. The isolation of Fumonisin C1 is different from other fumonisin because of lack of... Read More
Ionomycin are ionophores that form complexes with divalent metal cations; the complexes are lipid-soluble and hence, they are permeable cellular membranes. It’s divalent cation selectivity order as determined by ion competition experiments was found to be Ca2+ > Mg2+≫ Sr2+ = Ba2+, where the binding of strontium and barium by the antibiotic is insignificant. It is usually used in research to improve and to understand the permeability of... Read More
Ionophores are vast lipophilic materials proficient of reacting in exact proportion with metal ions (Ca2+, K+, H+, Na+), thereby functioning as a medium through which these ions can be transferred within a bimolecular lipid membrane. They are carboxylic polyether antibiotics, they are toxic to bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and higher organism and therefore fit into the category of antimicrobial compounds. They interrupt the ion concentration... Read More
Oligomycin is a group of Streptomyces macrolides that bind to the Oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP) at the F(o) subunits 6 and 9 which are found in the stalk of the F1F0-ATPase complex. This binding blocks proton conductance across the synthase complex and inhibits the synthesis of mitochondrial ATP. As an additional result, the proton pumps of the electron transport chain are unable to operate because the gradient becomes too... Read More