Ionomycin are ionophores that form complexes with divalent metal cations; the complexes are lipid-soluble and hence, they are permeable cellular membranes. It’s divalent cation selectivity order as determined by ion competition experiments was found to be Ca2+ > Mg2+≫ Sr2+ = Ba2+, where the binding of strontium and barium by the antibiotic is insignificant. It is usually used in research to improve and to understand the permeability of... Read More
Ionophores are vast lipophilic materials proficient of reacting in exact proportion with metal ions (Ca2+, K+, H+, Na+), thereby functioning as a medium through which these ions can be transferred within a bimolecular lipid membrane. They are carboxylic polyether antibiotics, they are toxic to bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and higher organism and therefore fit into the category of antimicrobial compounds. They interrupt the ion concentration... Read More
Mycotoxins are defined as naturally occurring substances produced by filamentous fungi (moulds) that arouse toxic response when introduced in low amount to animals through a natural pathway. These fungi are referred to as “toxigenic” fungi. They grow naturally as a form of contaminants on some food crops majorly cereals, nuts and fruit. Conventionally, toxigenic fungi which contaminate crops have been grouped into two groups: “field” and “... Read More
Oligomycin is a group of Streptomyces macrolides that bind to the Oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP) at the F(o) subunits 6 and 9 which are found in the stalk of the F1F0-ATPase complex. This binding blocks proton conductance across the synthase complex and inhibits the synthesis of mitochondrial ATP. As an additional result, the proton pumps of the electron transport chain are unable to operate because the gradient becomes too... Read More