Ionophores are compounds which can facilitate the migration of ions across biological membranes. Ions, being electrically charged, cannot by themselves cross the hydrophobic interior of biological membranes.

Ionophores usually have a polar inner moiety, and a non-polar outer moiety which can span or cross the hydrophobic interior of the membrane. Ionophore function usually affects metallic cations.

There are two types of ionophores: Channel-formers and Carriers. Channel formers are usually large proteins. They usually function by incorporating themselves into the cell-membrane, creating a polar “tube” across the membrane, enabling ions pass through. Carriers are usually smaller molecules, with a non-polar exterior and a polar interior.

The polar interior can reversibly bind an ion, effectively wrapping the electric charge of the ion within a non-polar envelope. The non-polar envelope can then cross the interior of the membrane, carrying the ion with it.

Ionophores can interfere with the balance of ion concentrations across membranes. Maintenance of ionic gradients across the cell membrane is an essential biological function. In interfering with such ionic gradients, ionophores often display antibiotic properties. Several novel works have been published, where natural ionophore compounds, when fed to cattle in liquid, solid or medicinal form, increased calf weight gain in correlation to the amount given.

Nigericin

Nigericin (sodium salt)
Molecular Formula
C40H67O11∙Na
M.W.
746.93
CAS number
28643-80-3 (sodium salt)
MSDS
Source
Streptomyces hygroscopicus
Fermentek product Code
NIG-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml of Dichloromethane
Names and identifiers

Polyetherin A; Azalomycin M; Helixin C ;

RTECS QT6825000

EU number
608-231-4
Description

Nigericin is a polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria.

Nigericin is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Nigericin, an ionophore and antibiotic, is supplied as a sodium salt.

Nigericin is one of the compounds successfully tested as a feed additive, displaying a significant effect on milk production in cattle. In vitro, nigericin has broad biological activity against Gram positive bacteria, fungi, tumor cell lines and some viruses, including HIV.

InChl Key
MOYOTUKECQMGHE-NTQCAYBPSA-M
Canonical SMILES
CC1CCC(OC1C(C)C(=O)[O-])CC2CC(C(C3(O2)C(CC(O3)(C)C4CCC(O4)(C)C5C(CC(O5)C6C(CC(C(O6)(CO)O)C)C)C)C)C)OC.[Na+]
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@H]1CC[C@@H](OC1[C@@H](C)C(=O)[O-])C[C@@H]2C[C@H]([C@H]([C@@]3(O2)[C@@H](C[C@@](O3)(C)C4CC[C@@](O4)(C)C5[C@H](C[C@@H](O5)[C@@H]6[C@H](C[C@H]([C@@](O6)(CO)O)C)C)C)C)C)OC.[Na+]
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO, Ethanol, petrol ether. Not soluble in water

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Open carefully – Lyophilized solid under vacuum
Expiration time
2Y
Retest time
1Y
Applications

Disrupts the membrane potential and stimulates ATPase activity in mitochondria.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Shipped at ambient temperature
Shipped in amber-glass vials
Available since
Title
More about
Value
Nigericin f.a.; cas 28380-24-7 rtecs QT6825000, mouse oral ld50=190 mg/kg
Fermentek Product Category
Signal to sort
N

Ionomycin free acid

Ionomycin free acid
Molecular Formula
C41H72O9
M.W.
709.01
CAS number
56092-81-0
MSDS
Source
Streptomyces conglobatus
Fermentek product Code
IOF-001
Appearance
Waxy material
Purity by HPLC
≥97% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml of Methanol; Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml of DMSO; Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml of DCM
Names and identifiers

(4R,6S,8S,10Z,12R,14R,16E,18S,19S,20R,21S)-11,19,21-Trihydroxy-22-{(2S,2'S,5S,5'R)-5'-[(1S)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2,5'-dimethyloctahydro-2,2'-bifuran-5-yl}-4,6,8,12,14,18,20-heptamethyl-9-oxo-10,16-docosadi enoic acid

RTECS : NO0600000

EU number
611-356-7
Description

Ionomycin : a Ca++ ionophore

InChl Key
PGHMRUGBZOYCAA-ADZNBVRBSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC(CCC(=O)O)CC(C)CC(C)C(=O)C=C(C(C)CC(C)CC=CC(C)C(C(C)C(CC1CCC(O1)(C)C2CCC(O2)(C)C(C)O)O)O)O
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@H](CCC(=O)O)C[C@H](C)C[C@H](C)C(=O)/C=C(/[C@H](C)C[C@H](C)C/C=C/[C@@H](C)[C@H]([C@@H](C)[C@H](C[C@@H]1CC[C@@](O1)(C)[C@H]2CC[C@@](O2)(C)[C@@H](C)O)O)O)\O
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO, Ethanol, Methanol

Compound Classification
  • Unsaturated fatty acid antibiotic.
  • Calcium Ionophore
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Open carefully.
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications

Ionomycin is more effective than A23187 as a Ca++ionophore. Ionomycin is used in research on Ca++ transport across biological membranes; Ionomycin induces apoptotic degeneration of embryonic cortical neuron

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport safety information
Value
Nor hazardous goods
Fermentek Product Category
Signal to sort
I

Ionomycin Calcium Salt

Ionomycin Calcium Salt
Molecular Formula
C41H70O9Ca
M.W.
747.06
CAS number
56092-82-1
MSDS
Source
Streptomyces conglobatus
Fermentek product Code
IOC-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White to slight yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥97% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
195°C-207°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml DMSO,
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml Methanol
Names and identifiers

RTECS NO0650000

EU number
611-357-2
Description

Ionomycin : a potent and selective Ca++ ionophore

InChl Key
WKRWUYKLUMMAKG-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Canonical SMILES
CC(CCC(=O)[O-])CC(C)CC(C)C(=O)C=C(C(C)CC(C)CC=CC(C)C(C(C)C(CC1CCC(O1)(C)C2CCC(O2)(C)C(C)O)O)O)[O-].[Ca+2]
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO, Ethanol, Methanol

Compound Classification
  • Fatty acid antibiotic
  • Calcium Ionophore
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications

Ionomycin is more effective than A23187 as a Ca++ionophore. Ionomycin is used in research on Ca++ transport across biological membranes; Ionomycin induces apoptotic degeneration of embryonic cortical neurons.

Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Transport safety: Not Dangerous Goods; Not Regulated
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Not dangerous goods
Title
Deleted CAS Numbers
Value
1214981-98-2
Signal to sort
I

Beauvericin

Beauvericin
Molecular Formula
C45H57N3O9
M.W.
783.95
CAS number
26048-05-5
Source
Beauveria bassiana
Fermentek product Code
BEA-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
white crystalline powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
147°C-152°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 1mg/ml of Methanol; Clear colorless solution at 1mg/ml of Acetonitrile
Description

Beauvericin is a mycotoxin derived from the mould Beauveria bassiana, Fusarium strains and other moulds. Beauvericin belongs to the enniatin family of antibiotics. Beauvericin is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide with alternating L-N-methylphenylalanyl and D-a-hydroxyisovaleryl residues. While being toxic to insects, it is quite harmless for humans.

InChl Key
GYSCAQFHASJXRS-FFCOJMSVSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC(C)C1C(=O)N(C(C(=O)OC(C(=O)N(C(C(=O)OC(C(=O)N(C(C(=O)O1)CC2=CC=CC=C2)C)C(C)C)CC3=CC=CC=C3)C)C(C)C)CC4=CC=CC=C4)C
Isomeric SMILES
CC(C)[C@@H]1C(=O)N([C@H](C(=O)O[C@@H](C(=O)N([C@H](C(=O)O[C@@H](C(=O)N([C@H](C(=O)O1)CC2=CC=CC=C2)C)C(C)C)CC3=CC=CC=C3)C)C(C)C)CC4=CC=CC=C4)C
Solubility ( literature )

Beauvericin insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents

Compound Classification

Oligopeptide, ionophore, antibiotic

Storage, handling
Deep frozen (-15 oC to - 20 oC)
Applications

Beauvericin is active against Gram+ bacteria, mycobacteria, insects, brine shrimp. Beauvericin shows cytotoxic, Immunosuppressant, and apoptotic activity. Beauvericin is the most potent specific inhibitor of cholesterol acyltransferase and possesses ionophoric properties. Beauvericin increases ion permeability in biological membranes by forming a complex with essential cations (Ca2+, Na+, K+), which may affect the ionic homeostasis.

Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Not hazardous for transport
Signal to sort
B

Bafilomycin A1

Bafilomycin A1
Molecular Formula
C35H58O9
M.W.
622.83
CAS number
88899-55-2
MSDS
Source
Streptomyces griseus
Fermentek product Code
BFA-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Yellow to white powder
Purity by HPLC
≥95% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
150°C-166°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless to yellow solution at 5mg/ml Methanol or DMSO
Names and identifiers

IUPAC Name: (3Z,5E,7R,8S,9S,11E,13E,15S,16R)-8-Hydroxy-16-[(1S,2R,3S)-2-hydroxy-1-methyl-3-[(2R,4R,5S,6R)-tetrahydro-2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-6-(1-methylethyl)-2H-pyran-2-yl]butyl]-3,15-dimethoxy-5,7,9,11-tetramethyloxacyclohexadeca-3,5,11,13-tetraen-2-one

EU number
621-324-4
Description

Bafilomycin A1 is toxic macrolide antibiotic acts as a specific inhibitor of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase. It acts as autophagy Inhibitor

InChl Key
XDHNQDDQEHDUTM-JQWOJBOSSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1CC(=CC=CC(C(OC(=O)C(=CC(=CC(C1O)C)C)OC)C(C)C(C(C)C2(CC(C(C(O2)C(C)C)C)O)O)O)OC)C
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@H]1C/C(=C/C=C/[C@@H]([C@H](OC(=O)/C(=C/C(=C/[C@H]([C@H]1O)C)/C)/OC)[C@@H](C)[C@H]([C@H](C)[C@]2(C[C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O2)C(C)C)C)O)O)O)OC)/C
Solubility ( literature )

Soluble in 100% ethanol, methanol or DMSO.

Compound Classification

Macrolide antibiotic

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Hygroscopic substance.
Protect from moisture
Protect from light !
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Store under argon.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications

Bafilomycin A1 is a specific inhibitor of vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in animal cells, plant cells and microorganisms. Bafilomycin A1 is useful in distinguishing among different types of ATPases. Bafilomycin A1 can prevent the re-acidification of synaptic vesicles once they have undergone exocytosis. Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antineoplastic, Immunosuppressive Bafilomycin A1 has been shown to decrease multi-drug resistance.

Bafilomycin A1, inhibits vacuolar-​ATPase.
It is a potassium ionophore that impairs mitochondrial functions.
It activates respiration of neuronal cells via uncoupling associated with flickering depolarization of mitochondria.
Bafilomycin A1 has been commonly used as a method of inhibition of infection by viruses known or suspected to follow the path of receptor-​mediated endocytosis and low-​pH-​mediated membrane fusion
Vacuolar ATPase inhibitors overcome Bcl-​xL-​mediated chemoresistance through restoration of a caspase-​independent apoptotic pathway.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Not hazardous for transport
Title
storage
Value
TRC,Merck: under inert gas+hygros+light
Signal to sort
B

Apicidin

Apicidin
Molecular Formula
C34H49N5O6
M.W.
623.80
CAS number
183506-66-3
Source
Fusarium sp.
Fermentek product Code
API-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White to Off-White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
187°C-193°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 1 mg /ml Ethanol or DMSO
Names and identifiers

Synonyms:

  • apicidin C

IUPAC name:

  • (3S,6S,9S,12R)-3-[(2S)-butan-2-yl]-6-[(1-methoxyindol-3-yl)methyl]-9-(6-oxooctyl)-1,4,7,10-tetrazabicyclo[10.4.0]hexadecane-2,5,8,11-tetrone

RTECS XJ6094046 

EU number
635-755-0
Description

Apicidin is a mycotoxin which may occur naturally, as a result of Fusarium fungi growing on improperly stored foods.

Apicidin is a potent cell permeable inhibitor of histone deacetylase.

 

InChl Key
JWOGUUIOCYMBPV-GMFLJSBRSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CCC(C)C1C(=O)N2CCCCC2C(=O)NC(C(=O)NC(C(=O)N1)CC3=CN(C4=CC=CC=C43)OC)CCCCCC(=O)CC
Isomeric SMILES
CC[C@H](C)[C@H]1C(=O)N2CCCC[C@@H]2C(=O)N[C@H](C(=O)N[C@H](C(=O)N1)CC3=CN(C4=CC=CC=C43)OC)CCCCCC(=O)CC
Solubility ( literature )

Ethanol, DMSO, Dichloromethane. Slightly soluble in water, methanol.

Compound Classification
  • Cyclic peptide antibiotic
  • Mycotoxin
  • Antiprotozoal
  • HDAC inhibitor
  • Angiogenesis inhibitor
Applications

Cyclic peptide antibiotic with broad spectrum antiparasitic and antiprotozoan activity. An histone deacetylase inhibitor, Anti-angiogenic; Apoptosis inductor.

Disclaimer
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions.
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Not hazardous for transport
Title
research fields
Value
Systemic lupus erythematosus; Autoimmune diseases; Rheumatoid arthritis; Histone deacetylation;
Title
Safety comments
Value
RTECS only specifies mutagenity. Whoever says it is toxic, has no data to support
Signal to sort
A

Alamethicin

Alamethicin
Molecular Formula
C92H150N22O25
M.W.
1 964.30
CAS number
27061-78-5
MSDS
Source
Trichoderma viride
Fermentek product Code
ALA-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Off White to Beige powder
Purity by HPLC
4 peaks, complies to standard
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
252°C-272°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml DMSO or Methanol
Names and identifiers

 

Synonyms: Antibiotic U 22324

RTECS: AY1900000

EU number
608-040-6
Description

Alamethicin is a channel-forming ionophore. Chemically, it is a peptide of 20 amino acids. The product consists of a mixture of several isoforms, which may be slightly different in the amino-acids sequences, but possess the same activity.

 

InChl Key
LGHSQOCGTJHDIL-UTXLBGCNSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC(C)CC(C(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)N1CCCC1C(=O)NC(C(C)C)C(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)NC(CCC(=O)O)C(=O)NC(CCC(=O)N)C(=O)NC(CC2=CC=CC=C2)CO)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(C)(C)NC(=O)C(C(C)C)NC(=O)C(C)(C)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)C(C)NC(=O)C(C)(C)NC(=O)C(C)NC(=O)C(C)(C)NC(=O)C3CCCN3C(=O)C(C)(C)NC(=O)C
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@@H](C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)N)C(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)NCC(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)N1CCC[C@H]1C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)N)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC2=CC=CC=C2)CO)NC(=O)C(C)(C)NC(=O)[C@H](C)NC(=O)C(C)(C)NC(=O)[C@@H]3CCCN3C(=O)C(C)(C)NC(=O)C
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO, Methanol, Ethanol

Compound Classification
  1. Peptide antibiotic
  2. Channel forming Ionophore
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Hygroscopic substance.
Protect from moisture
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Applications

Can mimic nerve action potential across artificial membranes

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Pg III
Title
Deleted CAS numbers
Value
11051-59-5; 55739-76-9
Signal to sort
A

A23187, 4-Bromo

A23187, 4-Bromo
Molecular Formula
C29H36BrN3O6
M.W.
602.52
CAS number
76455-48-6
Source
Semisynthetic
Fermentek product Code
A4B-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Slight yellow crystals
Purity by HPLC
≥95% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml of Dichloromethane
Names and identifiers

Synonyms:

4-Bromo-A23187,

4-Bromocalcimycin,

Systematic Name:

4-Benzoxazolecarboxylic acid, 6-bromo-5-(methylamino)-2-(((2S,3S,6S,8S,9R,11R)-3,9,11-trimethyl-8-((1S)-1-methyl-2-oxo-2-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)ethyl)-1,7-dioxaspiro(5.5)undec-2-yl)methyl)-

RTECS:  n.a.

 

EU number
634-762-6
Chemical name
4-Bromo-A-23187
Description

Brominated Analog of A23187 (Calcimycin). A23187 is an ionophore antibiotic that forms dimeric complexes with divalent cations such an Mn2+ and Ca2+.

InChl Key
LDXQFZZGVTWFCF-FHYGWRBKSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1CCC2(C(CC(C(O2)C(C)C(=O)C3=CC=CN3)C)C)OC1CC4=NC5=C(C(=C(C=C5O4)Br)NC)C(=O)O
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@@H]1CC[C@]2([C@@H](C[C@H]([C@H](O2)[C@H](C)C(=O)C3=CC=CN3)C)C)O[C@@H]1CC4=NC5=C(C(=C(C=C5O4)Br)NC)C(=O)O
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO, Methanol, Dichloromethane

Compound Classification

polyether antibiotic;  calcium ionophore

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Expiration time
3Y
Applications

Nonfluorescent calcium ionophore used as a calibration standard for determining cytoplasmic calcium ions by fluorescent probes.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Semi-Synthetic
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Not hazardous for transport
Fermentek Product Category
Signal to sort
A

A23187 free acid

A23187 free acid
Molecular Formula
C29H37N3O6
M.W.
523.62
CAS number
52665-69-7
MSDS
Source
Streptomyces chartreusis
Fermentek product Code
AFA-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
186°C-192°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 5mg/ml of Ethanol;
Clear colorless solution at 50mM DMSO
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

  • Calcimycin,
  • Calcium Ionophore,
  • A23187

RTECS#   NO0600000

 

EU number
258-084-1
Chemical name
A23187
Description

A23187 ( Calcimycin ) is Mobile ion-carrier that forms stable complexes with divalent cations.

InChl Key
HIYAVKIYRIFSCZ-CVXKHCKVSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1CCC2(C(CC(C(O2)C(C)C(=O)C3=CC=CN3)C)C)OC1CC4=NC5=C(O4)C=CC(=C5C(=O)O)NC
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@H]1CCC2([C@@H](C[C@H]([C@H](O2)C(C)C(=O)C3=CC=CN3)C)C)O[C@H]1CC4=NC5=C(O4)C=CC(=C5C(=O)O)NC
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO, Methanol, Dichloromethane . Slightly soluble in water

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend +2 to +8°C storage.
Retest time
3Y
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Semi-Synthetic
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Shipped at ambient temperature
Transport safety: Not Dangerous Goods; Not Regulated
Amber-glass vial.
Available since
Title
Comment:
Value
Additional tests, such as elemental analysis, may be included in CoA
Title
Deleted CAS numbers
Value
37259-87-3; 37263-57-3; 51257-80-8; 51310-65-7; 53095-21-9
Title
Transport information
Value
Not hazardous for transport
Title
TSE category
Value
F
Title
sig
Value
100105
Fermentek Product Category
Signal to sort
A