Apoptosis is defined as a process of deliberate cell suicide in a multicellular organism. It is one of the main types of programmed cell death (PCD), and involves an orchestrated series of biochemical events leading to a characteristic cell morphology and death.

The apoptotic process is executed in such a way as to safely dispose of dead cells and fragments.

Apoptosis is a crucial element of the ontogenesis of multicellular organisms. Any aberration in it may lead to neoplastic events, to cancer and to death of the entire organism. Therefore, the Fermentek "Apoptosis related products” are of use in biological and medical research. Some have been the basis for the development of novel drugs.

Oligomycin (complex)

Oligomycin (complex)
Molecular Formula
C45H74O11
M.W.
791.06
CAS number
1404-19-9
MSDS
Source
Streptomyces diastatochromogenes
Fermentek product Code
OLG-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥90% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml Ethanol or Methanol
Names and identifiers

 

EU number
215-767-9
Description
  • Oligomycin (complex): a macrolide antibiotic that inhibits membrane bound mitochondrial ATPase. 
  • Oligomycin (complex) is a mixture of A, B, C isomers and other analogs.
  • The molecular weight and molecular structure shown on this page, are of Oligomycin A, the major component.
  • HPLC shows separately the concentrations of all components. Their ratio is not consistent and may vary from lot to lot. The analysis of the components is brought in CoA of particular lots.
  • The three components are also offered as separate products.
  •  
InChl Key
MNULEGDCPYONBU-DJRUDOHVSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CCC1CCC2C(C(C(C3(O2)CCC(C(O3)CC(C)O)C)C)OC(=O)C=CC(C(C(C(=O)C(C(C(C(=O)C(C(C(CC=CC=C1)C)O)(C)O)C)O)C)C)O)C)C
Isomeric SMILES
CC[C@@H]/1CC[C@H]2C(C([C@H]([C@@]3(O2)CC[C@H]([C@H](O3)CC(C)O)C)C)OC(=O)/C=C/[C@@H]([C@H]([C@H](C(=O)C([C@@H]([C@H](C(=O)[C@@]([C@@H]([C@H](C/C=C/C=C1)C)O)(C)O)C)O)C)C)O)C)C
Solubility ( literature )

Dichloromethane, DMSO, Ethanol, Acetone

Compound Classification

Chemical class: Macrolide

Bioactivity class: Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Inhibitor

 
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Protect from moisture
Use the original container to store the product.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications

Used as a tool in cytochemistry.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Not hazardous for transport
Title
Safety comments
Value
H302 Harmful if swallowed
Title
Deleted CAS Registry Numbers
Value
11098-49-0
Fermentek Product Category
Signal to sort
O

Okadaic Acid

Okadaic Acid
Molecular Formula
C44H68O13
M.W.
805.00
CAS number
78111-17-8
Source
Marine dinoflagellates
Fermentek product Code
OKA-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥90% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 5mg/ml EtOH;
Clear colorless solution at 40mg/ml DMSO
Names and identifiers

RTECS AA8227800

EU number
616-589-8
Chemical name
Acanthifolicin, 9,10-deepithio-9,10-didehydro-
Description

Inhibitor of protein phosphatase

InChl Key
QNDVLZJODHBUFM-WFXQOWMNSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1CCC2(CCCCO2)OC1C(C)CC(C3C(=C)C(C4C(O3)CCC5(O4)CCC(O5)C=CC(C)C6CC(=CC7(O6)C(CCC(O7)CC(C)(C(=O)O)O)O)C)O)O
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@@H]1CC[C@]2(CCCCO2)O[C@@H]1[C@@H](C)C[C@@H]([C@@H]3C(=C)[C@H]([C@H]4[C@H](O3)CC[C@]5(O4)CC[C@@H](O5)/C=C/[C@@H](C)[C@@H]6CC(=C[C@@]7(O6)[C@@H](CC[C@H](O7)C[C@](C)(C(=O)O)O)O)C)O)O
Solubility ( literature )

Reportedly, Okadaic acid is soluble in acetone, methanol, ethanol, chloroform or ethyl acetate.

Compound Classification

Polyether antibiotic

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Applications

Okadaic Acid is a potent non-TPA type tumor promoter and vasodilator. It induces hyperphosphorylation of the P53 oncoprotein

Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Additional Transport Information:
Value
De Minimis Quantities exemption, per IATA 2.6.10 - applicable.
Title
Transpoprt information
Value
Pg III
Title
Storage considerations
Value
Some other sources recommend storing under inert gase
Signal to sort
O

Nivalenol

Nivalenol
Molecular Formula
C15H20O7
M.W.
312.32
CAS number
23282-20-4
Source
Semisynthetic
Fermentek product Code
NIV-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White to Off-White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10 mg/ml Methanol or DMSO
Names and identifiers

IUPAC Name
(3β,4α,7α,12ξ)-3,4,7,15-Tetrahydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-en-8-one

RTECS#
YD0167000

EU number
621-749-5
Description

Nivalenol is a type - B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium species, such as Fusarium cerealis, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium nivale. Besides the natural toxin produced directly by molds, Nivalenol may be also formed by higher plants and by mammals, as a product of biodegradation of other, related thrichothecenes.

InChl Key
UKOTXHQERFPCBU-XLYGLCRNSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC2C(C(C1=O)O)(C3(C(C(C(C34CO4)O2)O)O)C)CO
Isomeric SMILES
CC1=C[C@@H]2[C@]([C@@H](C1=O)O)([C@]3([C@@H]([C@H]([C@H](C34CO4)O2)O)O)C)CO
Solubility ( literature )

Dichloromethane, DMSO, Methanol. Slightly soluble in water

Compound Classification

Chemical class:
Trichothecene mycotoxin

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
trichocethenes are thermostable compounds and are not destroyed in boiling.
Applications

Nivalenol (0.01 mg/ml) induces apoptosis in HL60 cells (Ueno et al., 1995). Nivalenol was shown to inhibit protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocytes in vitro. Nivalenol inhibited the synthesis of nucleic acids in vitro.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Semi-Synthetic
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since

Mitomycin C

Mitomycin C
Molecular Formula
C15H18N4O5
M.W.
334.30
CAS number
50-07-7
MSDS
Source
Streptomyces caespitous
Fermentek product Code
MTC-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Blue-violet solid
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear blue-violet solution at 10mg/ml Methanol
Names and identifiers

Synonyms:

  • mutamycin
  • ametycin, 
  • mitocin-C,

IUPAC name:
{11-Amino-7-methoxy-12-methyl-10,13-dioxo-2,5-diazatetracyclo[7.4.0.02,7.04,6]trideca-1(9),11-dien-8-yl}methyl carbamate

RTECS: CN0700000

 

EU number
200-008-6
Description

Mitomycin C is an anti-tumor antibiotic that binds covalently to DNA.

Mitomycin C has also antibacterial properties.

InChl Key
NWIBSHFKIJFRCO-WUDYKRTCSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1=C(C(=O)C2=C(C1=O)N3CC4C(C3(C2COC(=O)N)OC)N4)N
Isomeric SMILES
CC1=C(C(=O)C2=C(C1=O)N3C[C@H]4[C@@H]([C@@]3([C@@H]2COC(=O)N)OC)N4)N
Solubility ( literature )

Soluble is Methanol; Soluble in water.

Compound Classification

Indolequinone antibiotic.

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Other vendors may recommend storage at 4ºC
Applications

Mitomycin C is also available as a a 4% mixture in NaCL. See "Mitomycin C+NaCL" Sample CoA

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since

K252c

K252c
Molecular Formula
C20H13N3O
M.W.
311.40
CAS number
85753-43-1
Source
Nocardiopsis sp
Fermentek product Code
K2C-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Off-white to yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless to light yellow solution at 7.8mg/ml DMSO (25mM)
Names and identifiers

Synonyms:

  • Staurosporine aglycone;
  • Staurosporinone.
  • K252C

 

Description

K252c: Cell permeable protein kinase inhibitor of the Staurosporine family (indolo[2,3-a]carbazole alkaloids)

InChl Key
MEXUTNIFSHFQRG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Canonical SMILES
C1C2=C3C4=CC=CC=C4NC3=C5C(=C2C(=O)N1)C6=CC=CC=C6N5
Solubility ( literature )

Readily soluble in chloroform, acetonitrile, acetone, dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, pyridine;Soluble in ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, ethyl acetate and n-butanol;Insoluble in water, 2-propanol. Comment: This information has been collected from available scientific sources. It is not a part of product specification

Compound Classification

indolocarbazole alkaloidPKC inhibitor

Storage, handling
-20oC. Protect from light. Hygroscopic. Protect from moisture
Applications

K252c inhibits protein kinase C. Its reported IC50 value of 214 nM on rat brain enzyme K252c is cytotoxic for A549 and P388 cancer celllines showing IC50 = 2-3 μM

Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
NDG
Signal to sort
K

K252b

K252b
Molecular Formula
C26H19N3O5
M.W.
453.45
CAS number
99570-78-2
Source
Semisynthetic
Fermentek product Code
K2B-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
white to light yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
245°C-255°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 5mg/ml of Methanol
Names and identifiers

Synonyms:

  • Antibiotic K 252b
  • K 252b
  • KT 5556

 

 

 

Description

K252B: an inhibitor of protein kinase A, C, G

InChl Key
AMSOPBXQXSAAAC-PLZPTFKGSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC12C(CC(O1)N3C4=CC=CC=C4C5=C6C(=C7C8=CC=CC=C8N2C7=C53)CNC6=O)(C(=O)O)O
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@@]12[C@](C[C@@H](O1)N3C4=CC=CC=C4C5=C6C(=C7C8=CC=CC=C8N2C7=C53)CNC6=O)(C(=O)O)O
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO or Methanol

Compound Classification

Indolocarbazole alkaloid; 

PK inhibitor

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Hygroscopic substance.
Protect from moisture
Protect from light !
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Deleted CAS Numbers:
Value
107028-51-3
Title
Transport information
Value
NDG
Signal to sort
K

Ionomycin Calcium Salt

Ionomycin Calcium Salt
Molecular Formula
C41H70O9Ca
M.W.
747.06
CAS number
56092-82-1
MSDS
Source
Streptomyces conglobatus
Fermentek product Code
IOC-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White to slight yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥97% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
195°C-207°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml DMSO,
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml Methanol
Names and identifiers

RTECS NO0650000

EU number
611-357-2
Description

Ionomycin : a potent and selective Ca++ ionophore

InChl Key
WKRWUYKLUMMAKG-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Canonical SMILES
CC(CCC(=O)[O-])CC(C)CC(C)C(=O)C=C(C(C)CC(C)CC=CC(C)C(C(C)C(CC1CCC(O1)(C)C2CCC(O2)(C)C(C)O)O)O)[O-].[Ca+2]
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO, Ethanol, Methanol

Compound Classification
  • Fatty acid antibiotic
  • Calcium Ionophore
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications

Ionomycin is more effective than A23187 as a Ca++ionophore. Ionomycin is used in research on Ca++ transport across biological membranes; Ionomycin induces apoptotic degeneration of embryonic cortical neurons.

Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Transport safety: Not Dangerous Goods; Not Regulated
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Not dangerous goods
Title
Deleted CAS Numbers
Value
1214981-98-2
Signal to sort
I

Gliotoxin

Gliotoxin
Molecular Formula
C13H14N2O4S2
M.W.
326.39
CAS number
67-99-2
MSDS
Source
Gliocladium fimbriatum
Fermentek product Code
GLI-001
Appearance
White to yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
200°C-206°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml of Methanol
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

  • Aspergillin
  • IUPAC name : (3R,6S,10aR)-6-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2,3,6,10-tetrahydro-5aH-3,10a-epidithiopyrazino[1,2-a]indole-1,4-dione
  • IUPAC name : Gliotoxin

RTECS KB4725000

 

 

 

Description

Gliotoxin is a fungal antibiotic mycotoxin with antiphagycytic and immunomodulatory activities.

Gliotoxin is  an antibiotic that is toxic to higher animals as well as to animal and plant pathogens and that is produced by various fungi (as of the genera Gliocladium, Aspergillus, andPenicillium)

InChl Key
FIVPIPIDMRVLAY-RBJBARPLSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CN1C(=O)C23CC4=CC=CC(C4N2C(=O)C1(SS3)CO)O
Isomeric SMILES
CN1C(=O)[C@]23CC4=CC=C[C@@H]([C@H]4N2C(=O)[C@]1(SS3)CO)O
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO, Methanol, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, Petrol-ether, Dichloromethane. Water insoluble

Compound Classification

Chemical class:

  • Indole mycotoxin

Bioactivity class:

  • Immunomodulator
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Hygroscopic substance.
Protect from moisture
Protect from light !
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Applications

Gliotoxin blocks the thiol groups in the membranes . Gliotoxin induces apoptotsis in macrophages and thymocytes. Gliotoxin induces Ca2+ release from intact rat liver mitochondria.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Pg III
Title
CN code
Value
29419000
Signal to sort
G

Fumonisin B2

Fumonisin B2
Molecular Formula
C34H59NO14
M.W.
705.80
CAS number
116355-84-1
MSDS
Source
Fusarium moniliforme
Fermentek product Code
FB2-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White to Off-White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution 5 mg/ml Methanol
Names and identifiers

RTECS: TZ8335000

IUPAC name: (2R,2'R)-2,2'-{[(5R,6S,7S,9S,16R,18S,19S)-19-amino-16,18-dihydroxy-5,9-dimethylicosane-6,7-diyl]bis[oxy(2-oxoethane-2,1-diyl)]}disuccinic acid

EU number
601-424-4
Description

Structural analog of Fumonisin B1. Fumonisin B2 is more cytotoxic than Fumonisin B1.

Fumonisin B2 inhibits sphingosine acyl-transterase.

Canonical SMILES
CCCCC(C)C(C(CC(C)CCCCCCC(CC(C(C)N)O)O)OC(=O)CC(CC(=O)O)C(=O)O)OC(=O)CC(CC(=O)O)C(=O)O
Isomeric SMILES
CCCC[C@@H](C)[C@H]([C@H](C[C@@H](C)CCCCCC[C@H](C[C@@H]([C@H](C)N)O)O)OC(=O)C[C@@H](CC(=O)O)C(=O)O)OC(=O)C[C@@H](CC(=O)O)C(=O)O
Solubility ( literature )

Methanol

Compound Classification
  • Isoflavonoid
  • Phytoestrogen.
  • Sphingosine acyl-transterase inhibitor
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications

sphingosine acyl-transterase inhibitor

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
PG I
Title
REACH
Value
On REACH List of Pre-Registered Substances, March 2009 Registration Date: 31-MAY-2018.
Signal to sort
F

Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS)

Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS)
Molecular Formula
C19H26O7
M.W.
366.41
CAS number
2270-40-8
Source
Fusarium sp
Fermentek product Code
DAS-001
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
160°C-165°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml Methanol ; Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml dichloromethane
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

  • Anguidine,
  • DAS
  • Diacetoxyscirpenol

RTECS YD0112000

 

EU number
218-873-3
Description

Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) also known as Anguidine,  is a mycotoxin belonging to 12,13-epoxytrichothecene group, produced by several Fusarium strains together with some other toxins such as T2 and HT2 toxins.

 DAS inhibits initiation of protein synthesis, causing the death of intensively replicating cells. By the virtue of this effect, DAS possesses teratogenic and anti proliferatory properties. Consequently,  DAS attracts interest as a potential cancer- drug.

 

 

InChl Key
AUGQEEXBDZWUJY-ZLJUKNTDSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC2C(CC1)(C3(C(C(C(C34CO4)O2)O)OC(=O)C)C)COC(=O)C
Isomeric SMILES
CC1=C[C@@H]2[C@](CC1)([C@]3([C@@H]([C@H]([C@H]([C@]34CO4)O2)O)OC(=O)C)C)COC(=O)C
Solubility ( literature )

Soluble in moderately polar solvents, such as chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and acetone

Compound Classification
  • trichothecene mycotoxin
  • Apoptosis inducer
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Expiration time
1Y
Retest time
1Y
Applications

Diacetoxyscirpenol (Anguidine) and its derivates possess anticancer properties. Diacetoxyscirpenol (Anguidine) inhibits initiation of protein synthesis, resulting in the death of rapidly proliferating cells. Diacetoxyscirpenol (Anguidine) also has been shown to both potentiate and protect against the cytotoxic effects of other drugs. There were 14 clinical trials reported, all in the area of colorectal tumors and leukemia. No records found after 1985. Apoptosis inducement.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Semi-Synthetic
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Deleted CAS Numbers
Value
11011-10-2 ; 22135-66-6 ; 25662-95-7 ; 28776-47-8 ; 109547-11-7 ; 145427-91-4 ; 852223-87-1 ;
Title
Transport information
Value
Pg II
Signal to sort
D