The trichothecenes mycotoxins are produced mainly by fungi of the Fusarium genus. Fusaria are the most important mycotoxin-producing species, occurring widely in field crops. Group A trichothecenes includes: T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, Neosolaniol, and Diacetoxyscirpenol. Group B trichothecenes includes: Deoxynivalenol (commonly called ‘DON’ or ‘vomitoxin’), Nivalenol, and Fusarenon X.

Because Deoxynivalenol is toxic and often found in foodstuffs, sometimes in high concentrations, it has recently become a concern of international organizations and governmental food agencies.

Affected commodities and derived products

Trichothecenes occur in cereal grains such as wheat, barley, maize, oats, rice, soya beans, and derived products such as breakfast cereals and beer. They also can contaminate other food commodities including sorghum, potatoes, bananas, mustard seed, ground nuts, mangoes, sunflower seeds and cassava.

Toxicity and economical importance  

The Trichothecene group of toxins is acutely cytotoxic and strongly immunosuppressive at low concentrations. Acute toxicity is characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances such as vomiting, diarrhea, inflammation, dermal irritation, feed refusal, abortion, anaemia and leukopenia.

Regulation and permissible limits

In 2000, the EC proposed Deoxynivalenol action levels of 500ppb, for cereal products.  

Analytical detection methods

The current analytical method of choice for quantitative results, is GC with electron capture or mass spectrometric detection (MS). Recently, LC-MS, has been employed for the determination and identification of trichothecenes at trace levels. In addition, reliable and sensitive HPLC methods have been developed for some of the Group B compounds.

Accurate analysis of mycotoxins such as the trichothecenes depends upon the use of certified mycotoxin standard reference materials that are used for calibration and validation of the food safety analytical instruments and methods.

Fermentek's Trichothecene products

Fermentek offers Deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-Acetyl DON, 15 -Acetyl DON, Fusarenon X, HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, 15- Acetoxyscirpenol, T2 Tetrol, T-2 toxin and  T2 Triol. These mycotoxins are formulated either as standard solutions or as solid crystalline substances. 

Fusarenon X

Fusarenon X
Molecular Formula
C17H22O8
M.W.
354.35
CAS number
23255-69-8
MSDS
Source
Fusarium sp.
Fermentek product Code
FUX-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
92°C-97°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml of Dichloromethane
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

  • Nivalenol monoacetate
  • Nivalenol-4-o-acetate
  • 12,13-epoxy-3 alpha,4 beta,7 beta,15-tetrahydroxytrichothec-9-en-8-one 4-acetate

RTECS: YD0160000

EU number
621-752-1
Description

Fusarenon X is a trichothecene mycotoxin from various Fusarium strains

InChl Key
XGCUCFKWVIWWNW-CAYGJDLQSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC2C(C(C1=O)O)(C3(C(C(C(C34CO4)O2)O)OC(=O)C)C)CO
Isomeric SMILES
CC1=C[C@@H]2[C@]([C@@H](C1=O)O)([C@]3([C@@H]([C@H]([C@H]([C@@]34CO4)O2)O)OC(=O)C)C)CO
Solubility ( literature )

Dichloromethane, Chloroform, Ethyl Acetate, Ethanol, Methanol, water. Not soluble in N-Hexane, petrol ether.

Compound Classification
  • Trichothecene mycotoxin
  • immunosuppressor
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Hygroscopic substance.
Protect from moisture
Protect from light !
Open carefully.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Warnings

Health-Hazard

  • Respiratory sensitization, category 1
  • Germ cell mutagenicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Carcinogenicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Reproductive toxicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, categories 1, 2
  • Specific target organ toxicity following repeated exposure, categories 1, 2
  • Aspiration hazard, categories 1, 2
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Title
Transport information
Value
PG I
Title
Deleted CAS numbers
Value
23255-72-3; 26153-10-6; 27552-17-6; 28392-39-4; 32204-36-7; 115889-63-9
Title
stability froz
Value
3 y 100% fx004
Signal to sort
F

Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS)

Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS)
Molecular Formula
C19H26O7
M.W.
366.41
CAS number
2270-40-8
Source
Fusarium sp
Fermentek product Code
DAS-001
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
160°C-165°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml Methanol ; Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml dichloromethane
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

  • Anguidine,
  • DAS
  • Diacetoxyscirpenol

RTECS YD0112000

 

EU number
218-873-3
Description

Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) also known as Anguidine,  is a mycotoxin belonging to 12,13-epoxytrichothecene group, produced by several Fusarium strains together with some other toxins such as T2 and HT2 toxins.

 DAS inhibits initiation of protein synthesis, causing the death of intensively replicating cells. By the virtue of this effect, DAS possesses teratogenic and anti proliferatory properties. Consequently,  DAS attracts interest as a potential cancer- drug.

 

 

InChl Key
AUGQEEXBDZWUJY-ZLJUKNTDSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC2C(CC1)(C3(C(C(C(C34CO4)O2)O)OC(=O)C)C)COC(=O)C
Isomeric SMILES
CC1=C[C@@H]2[C@](CC1)([C@]3([C@@H]([C@H]([C@H]([C@]34CO4)O2)O)OC(=O)C)C)COC(=O)C
Solubility ( literature )

Soluble in moderately polar solvents, such as chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and acetone

Compound Classification
  • trichothecene mycotoxin
  • Apoptosis inducer
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Expiration time
1Y
Retest time
1Y
Applications

Diacetoxyscirpenol (Anguidine) and its derivates possess anticancer properties. Diacetoxyscirpenol (Anguidine) inhibits initiation of protein synthesis, resulting in the death of rapidly proliferating cells. Diacetoxyscirpenol (Anguidine) also has been shown to both potentiate and protect against the cytotoxic effects of other drugs. There were 14 clinical trials reported, all in the area of colorectal tumors and leukemia. No records found after 1985. Apoptosis inducement.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Semi-Synthetic
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Deleted CAS Numbers
Value
11011-10-2 ; 22135-66-6 ; 25662-95-7 ; 28776-47-8 ; 109547-11-7 ; 145427-91-4 ; 852223-87-1 ;
Title
Transport information
Value
Pg II
Signal to sort
D

15-acetyl Deoxynivalenol

15-acetyl Deoxynivalenol
Molecular Formula
C17H22O7
M.W.
338.35
CAS number
88337-96-6
Source
Semisynthetic
Fermentek product Code
15D-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
130°C-140°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml Methanol or Ethyl acetate
Names and identifiers

Synonyms:

  • 15-acetyl don;
  • 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol;
  • 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol;

RTECS:  YD0155000

 

EU number
621-572-3
Description

Natural, Type B trichothecene mycotoxin

InChl Key
IDGRYIRJIFKTAN-HTJQZXIKSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC2C(C(C1=O)O)(C3(CC(C(C34CO4)O2)O)C)COC(=O)C
Isomeric SMILES
CC1=C[C@@H]2[C@]([C@@H](C1=O)O)([C@]3(C[C@H]([C@H]([C@@]34CO4)O2)O)C)COC(=O)C
Solubility ( literature )

15-acetyl Deoxynivalenol is soluble in common polar organic solvents as acetonitrile, methanol and ethyl acetate, only slightly soluble in water. Trichothecenes with acetoxy-groups are unstable in methanol, even when stored in a freezer [H. Pettersson, EU-Commission Progress Report SMT4-CT96-2047, 1-24, (1998), "Intercomparison of trichothecene analysis and feasibility to produce certified calibrants and reference material"] Acetonitrile is recommended as solvent for 15-acetyl Deoxynivalenol as it has no significant UV absorbance below 220 nm.

Compound Classification

Trichothecene mycotoxin

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Pg II
Title
RTECS
Value
YD0155000
Signal to sort
D

3-acetyl Deoxynivalenol

3-acetyl Deoxynivalenol
Molecular Formula
C17H22O7
M.W.
338.35
CAS number
50722-38-8
Source
Fusarium graminearum
Fermentek product Code
3AD-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
184°C-189°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml Methanol or Ethyl acetate
Names and identifiers
  • 3ADON
  • 3α-Acetylvomitoxin
  • 3-Acetyl DON
  • 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol
  • Dehydronivalenol monoacetate
  • Deoxynivalenol monoacetate

RTECS: YD0167000

EU number
621-771-5
Description

Natural Type B trichothecene mycotoxin

InChl Key
ADFIQZBYNGPCGY-HTJQZXIKSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC2C(C(C1=O)O)(C3(CC(C(C34CO4)O2)OC(=O)C)C)CO
Isomeric SMILES
CC1=C[C@@H]2[C@]([C@@H](C1=O)O)([C@]3(C[C@H]([C@H]([C@@]34CO4)O2)OC(=O)C)C)CO
Solubility ( literature )

3-acetyl Deoxynivalenol is soluble in common polar organic solvents as acetonitrile, methanol and ethyl acetate, only slightly soluble in water.

Compound Classification

Trichothecene mycotoxin

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Open carefully.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Semi-Synthetic
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Deleted CAS Numbers:
Value
115825-62-2; 233593-19-6
Title
Transport information
Value
Pg II
Signal to sort
D

Deoxynivalenol

Deoxynivalenol (DON)
Molecular Formula
C15H20O6
M.W.
296.30
CAS number
51481-10-8
MSDS
Source
Semisynthetic
Fermentek product Code
DON-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White crystalline solid.
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
150°C-155°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml Methanol or Ethyl acetate

Names and identifiers
  • Rd toxin
  • Vomitoxin
  • Deoxynivalenol
  • 4-Deoxynivalenol
  • Dehydronivalenol
  • 4-Desoxynivalenol

RTECS YD0167000

EU number
610-668-0
Description

Deoxynivalenol (DON , Vomitoxin) is a type B trichothecene. It occurs in grains such as wheat, barley, oats, rye, and maize, rice, sorghum. Deoxynivalenol (DON ) is produced by numerous strains of Fusarium and some other fungi. Deoxynivalenol (DON ) poisonings occur both in humans and farm animals. Deoxynivalenol (DON ) is highly toxic, producing a wide range of immunological disturbances and is particularly noted for inducing feed refusal and emesis in pigs, hence the alternative name vomitoxin Deoxynivalenol (DON ) usually co-occurs with other Fusarium toxins, such as Zearalenone, Nivalenol and its derivates, as well as the group of fumonisins.

InChl Key
LINOMUASTDIRTM-QGRHZQQGSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC2C(C(C1=O)O)(C3(CC(C(C34CO4)O2)O)C)CO
Isomeric SMILES
CC1=C[C@@H]2[C@]([C@@H](C1=O)O)([C@]3(C[C@H]([C@H]([C@@]34CO4)O2)O)C)CO
Solubility ( literature )

Deoxynivalenol (DON ) is soluble in common polar organic solvents as acetonitrile, methanol and ethyl acetate, slightly soluble in water.

Compound Classification

trichothecene type B mycotoxin

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Protect from moisture
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications

The main toxic effect of Deoxynivalenol (DON ) is inhibition of protein synthesis via binding to the ribosome.In agricultural R&D, DON is widely used to select crops strains with increased resistance against Fusarium.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Semi-Synthetic
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Deleted CAS Numbers
Value
50722-37-7 ; 115825-61-1 ; 1394244-12-2
Signal to sort
D

15-Acetoxyscirpenol

15-Acetoxyscirpenol
Molecular Formula
C17H24O6
M.W.
324.37
CAS number
2623-22-5
MSDS
Source
Semisynthetic
Fermentek product Code
15A-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
160-167°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10 mg/ml Methanol;
Clear colorless solution at 10 mg/ml DMSO
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

MAS

15-Acetoxyscirpenol

15-Monoacetoxyscirpenol

15- Deacetylanguidin

4- Deacetylanguidin

IUPAC names:  15-Acetoxyscirpenol

Chemical names: 15-Mono-O-acetylscirpenol;    Deacetylanguidin;    15-Acetoxyscirpenol;

Systematic Name:  Trichothec-9-ene-3-alpha,4-beta,15-triol, 12,13-epoxy-, 15- acetate

RTECS: YD0111000

EU number
636-756-9
Chemical name
15-Acetoxyscirpenol;
Description

MAS (15-Acetoxyscirpenol) is a Trichothecene class mycotoxin. It is closely related to DAS (Diacetoxyscirpenol)

InChl Key
IRXDUBNENLKYTC-DIRMQTSCSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC2C(CC1)(C3(C(C(C(C34CO4)O2)O)O)C)COC(=O)C
Isomeric SMILES
CC1=C[C@@H]2[C@](CC1)(C3([C@@H]([C@H]([C@H](C34CO4)O2)O)O)C)COC(=O)C
Solubility ( literature )

Soluble in moderately polar solvents, such as chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and acetone

Compound Classification

Trichothecene

Mycotoxin

Apoptosis inducer

UNSPSC:

123521 Chemicals, including biochemicals.

121615 Chemicals, Additives, Indicators and reagents    

85151701 Healthcare Services;  Food and nutrition services; Food policy planning and aid; Food standards

85131703  Biomedical research services

 

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications

MAS, as many other anguidine derivates exhibits a strong antimitotic effect,

Disclaimer
Semi-Synthetic
Degree
Grain
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Title
Transport information
Value
Pg III
Title
Deleted CAS Numbers
Value
174421-33-1; 852222-55-0
Title
CN code
Value
n.a.
Title
CN code
Value
n.a.
Title
C-L inventory
Value
Y
Signal to sort
A