Ochratoxin

Ochratoxin A (OTA or OA) is produced by Aspergilus and Penicillium fungi. It affects the kidneys and causes both acute and chronic lesions. It is also genotoxic and affects the immune system.

Ochratoxin A is a known contaminant of cereals.  Recently Ochratoxin A was found to contaminate a wide range of other stored products and processed foods including coffee, beer, dried fruit, wine, cocoa and nuts.

The EU has recently proposed statutory limits for Ochratoxin A of 5 µg/kg in raw cereal grains including rice and buckwheat, 3 µg/kg for derived cereal products or for cereal grains for direct human consumption, and 10 µg/kg in dried vine fruits.

Analytical methods used are based on TLC, HPLC or ELISA.

Fermentek offers Ochratoxin A and Ochratoxin B.

 

Zearalenone

Zearalenone is a mycotoxin produced by a number of Fusarium and Gibberella species that infect wheat, barley, rice, maize, sorghum, and contaminate many other agricultural products. It can survive processing in consumer products including corn and corn products, breakfast cereals, corn beer, wheat flour, bread and walnuts, as well as animal feed products.

Zearalenone causes hyperestrogenism, abortion, stillbirth's oestrus, infertility and sterility in domestic animals. Zearalenone is genotoxic and causes severe hormonal effects. It is considered a human mutagen or carcinogen and may cause human cervical cancer.

Zearalenone was evaluated by JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) which established a temporary TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) of 0.2 µg/kg of body weight per day. Estimates of average dietary intakes for some ‘European’ consumers were of the order of 0.02 µg/kg of body weight per day suggesting a significant margin of safety based on current knowledge.

TLC methods have been used for Zearalenone analysis but are now superseded by HPLC with UV or fluorescence detection, GC/ECD, GC/MS and HPLC/MS.

 

Patulin

Patulin is produced by Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys species growing on apples, pears, grapes and other fruit. The principal risk arises when contaminated fruit is used for the production of juices and other processed products. The most important threat of Patulin for humans is in apples and in apple juice, particularly that produced by direct pressing of apples.

Patulin causes nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal hyperaemia, distension, haemorrhage, and ulceration. It has also been shown to be immunotoxic and neurotoxic.

Codex Committees focusing on Food Additives and Contaminants, have established limits for Patulin in apple juice and in apple juice ingredients.

The quality of fruit juice is controlled in some countries by setting a 'guideline' or 'recommended' maximum concentration agreed upon with the apple processing industry. This is commonly set at 50 µg/litre.

Patulin can be detected using TLC, but the usual method of analysis is by HPLC with UV detection.

 

Citrinin

Citrinin, produced by Penicillium fungi is associated with yellow rice fever in the Far East. Citrinin is found in rice, wheat, flour, barley, maize, rye, oats, peanuts and fruit, and can cause kidney and liver damage to humans as well as to animals. Other effects include vasodilation, constriction of the bronchi and increased muscular tone. Cereal samples can be screened by TLC or ELISA while quantitative results can be provided by HPLC.

 

Cyclopiazonic acid

Cyclopiazonic acid is produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species. It has been detected at levels up to 10 mg/kg or higher in maize, millet, peanuts, pulses, cheese, ham, sausage, frankfurters, mixed feeds, hay, tomato, milk and other foods and feeds.

Cyclopiazonic acid appears to be toxic when present in high concentrations. It has been found to be a neurotoxin and to cause decreased weight gain, diarrhea, dehydration, depression, hyperaesthesia, hypokinesis, and convulsion in animals. Human ‘kodua poisoning’ in India from ingestion of contaminated millet seeds has been linked to cyclopiazonic acid.

A GC/MS method has been used for cyclopiazonic acid detection, while recently a HPLC/Mass Spectrometric method has been reported for the determination of cyclopiazonic acid in fungal cultures.

 

Additional mycotoxins

In addition to the Aflatoxins, Fumonisins, Ergots, Trichocothecenes and others mentioned above, there are additional mycotoxins that pose food safety threats. These include mycotoxins produced by Alternaria, Beauvericin, Citreoviridin, Moniliformin, Paxilline, Penicillic acid and Penitrem A.

 

 All of these mycotoxins are produced and marketed by Fermentek. 

Standard Solution Fumonisin B1,B2 mixture

Standard Solution Fumonisin B1,B2 mixture
Fermentek product Code
STD-017
Brand/grade
Analytical standard
Description

Fumonisin B1 and Fumonisin B2 50ppm each, in Acetonitrile-water 1:1, both HPLC grade, Ready for injection. Available in 1 or 5 cc vials.

Storage, handling
Refrigerate upon arrival, at +2°C to +8°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Disclaimer
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
50 µg/ml in Acetonitrile:DDW (1:1)
Ingredient Other
Acetonitrile, "HPLC Supra Gradient grade" (CAS #75-05-8)
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
to 50%
Ingredient Other
Water, distilled,for chromatography, HPLC grade, CAS "7732-18-5"
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
to 50%
Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
50 µg/ml in Acetonitrile:DDW (1:1)
Amber-glass vial.
Available since

Standard Solution Fumonisin B3

Standard Solution Fumonisin B3
Fermentek product Code
STD-016
Brand/grade
Analytical standard
Description

Vials containing 1 cc or 5 cc of solution of Fumonisin B3 50 ppm in Acetonitrile-water 1:1,  HPLC grade, Ready for HPLC injection.

Storage, handling
Refrigerate upon arrival, at +2°C to +8°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Disclaimer
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
50 µg/ml in Acetonitrile:DDW (1:1)
Ingredient Other
Acetonitrile, "HPLC Supra Gradient grade" (CAS #75-05-8)
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
to 50%
Ingredient Other
Water, distilled, for chromatography, HPLC grade, CAS "7732-18-5"
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
to 50%
Amber-glass vial.
Available since

Standard Solution Fumonisin B2

Standard Solution Fumonisin B2
Fermentek product Code
STD-015
Brand/grade
Analytical standard
Description

Fumonisin B2 50 ppm in Acetonitrile-water 1:1, both HPLC grade, Ready for injection. Available in 1 or 5 cc vials.

Storage, handling
Refrigerate upon arrival, at +2°C to +8°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Disclaimer
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
50 µg/ml in Acetonitrile:DDW (1:1)
Ingredient Other
Acetonitrile, "HPLC Supra Gradient grade" (CAS #75-05-8)
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
TO 50%
Ingredient Other
Water, distilled,for chromatography, HPLC grade, CAS "7732-18-5"
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
50%
Amber-glass vial.
Available since

Standard Solution Fumonisin B1

Standard Solution Fumonisin B1
Fermentek product Code
STD-014
Brand/grade
Analytical standard
Description

Fumonisin B1 50 ppm in Acetonitrile-water 1:1, both HPLC grade, Ready for injection. Available in 1 or 5 cc vials.

Storage, handling
Refrigerate upon arrival, at +2°C to +8°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Disclaimer
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
50 µg/ml in Acetonitrile:DDW (1:1)
Ingredient Other
Acetonitrile, "HPLC Supra Gradient grade" (CAS #75-05-8)
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
to 50%
Ingredient Other
Water, distilled,for chromatography, HPLC grade, CAS "7732-18-5"
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
50%
Available since

Chaetocin

Chaetocin
Molecular Formula
C30H28N6O6S4
M.W.
696.84
CAS number
28097-03-2
Source
From Chaetomium sp
Fermentek product Code
CHT-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥95% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
247°C-253°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 25 mg/ml DMSO
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

  • Chetocin
  • Chaetocin
  • (3S,3'S,5aR,5aR,10bR,10'bR,11aS,11'aS)-2,2',3,3',5a,5'a,6,6'-octahydro-3,3'-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2'-dimethyl-[10b,10'b(11H,11'H)-bi3,11a-epidithio-11aH-pyrazino[1',2':1,5]pyrrolo[2,3-b]indole]-1,1',4,4'-tetrone

RTECS: FM3032000

EU number
636-696-3
Description

A fungal metabolite which inhibits G9a histone methyltransferase.

InChl Key
PZPPOCZWRGNKIR-PNVYSBBASA-N
Canonical SMILES
CN1C(=O)C23CC4(C(N2C(=O)C1(SS3)CO)NC5=CC=CC=C54)C67CC89C(=O)N(C(C(=O)N8C6NC1=CC=CC=C71)(SS9)CO)C
Isomeric SMILES
c12c(N[C@@H]3N4[C@@]5(C[C@@]23[C@@]23c6c(N[C@@H]2N2[C@@]7(C3)C(N([C@@](C2=O)(SS7)CO)C)=O)cccc6)C(N([C@@](CO)(C4=O)SS5)C)=O)cccc1
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Retest time
3 Years
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Deleted CAS Numbers:
Value
31794-18-0
Title
Inhibitor of:
Value
G9a histone methyltransferase
Title
Transport information
Value
Not hazardous for transport
Title
Research Areas
Value
HIV
Signal to sort
C

Roquefortine C

Roquefortine C
Molecular Formula
C22H23N5O2
M.W.
389.50
CAS number
58735-64-1
Source
Penicillium roqueforti
Fermentek product Code
RQC-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White to slightly yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10 mg/ml Methanol or DMSO
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

  • Roquefortine
  • Roquefortin
  • roquefortine C
  • Rorifone

RTECS: UQ4730500

HSDB 7246

Description

Roquefortine C is a mycotoxin produced by various fungi, particularly species from the Penicillium genus. It was first isolated from a strain of Penicillium roqueforti, a species commercially used to make Roquefort, Danish Blue, Stilton and Gorgonzola cheeses.

InChl Key
SPWSUFUPTSJWNG-CXUHLZMHSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC(C)(C=C)C12CC3C(=O)NC(=CC4=CN=CN4)C(=O)N3C1NC5=CC=CC=C25
Isomeric SMILES
CC(C)(C=C)C12CC3C(=O)N/C(=C/C4=CN=CN4)/C(=O)N3C1NC5=CC=CC=C25
Solubility ( literature )

Soluble in 100% ethanol, methanol (10 mg/ml), DMSO (10 mg/ml), DMF, and water (poor).

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Protect from moisture
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Retest time
3 Years
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Warnings
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport Information
Value
Not Dangerous Goods
Title
toxicity by RTECS
Value
Rodent - mouse ; intraoeritoneal LD50 = 15 mg/kg; no other data
Signal to sort
R

Zearalenone

Zearalenone
Molecular Formula
C18H22O5
M.W.
318.36
CAS number
17924-92-4
MSDS
Source
Giberella zeae
Fermentek product Code
ZRE-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White to Off-White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
159°C-166°C
Solubility test
Clear colourless solution at 5mg/ml of Methanol
Names and identifiers

IUPAC : (3S,11E)-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-3,4,5,6,9,10-hexahydro-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecine-1,7(8H)-dione

RTECS: DM2550000

EU number
241-864-0
Description

Zearalenone is a natural estrogen, a mycotoxin from resorcylic acid lactone group. 

Zearalenone is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by
   several  Fusarium spp. It has been implicated in numerous
   mycotoxicoses in farm animals, especially in pigs. Zearalenone is
   heat-stable and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops, such
   as maize, barley, oats, wheat, rice, and sorghum (Kuiper-Goodman et
   al., 1987; Tanaka et al., 1988a) and also in bread (Aziz et al.,
   1997). Zearalenone was shown to be produced on corn by  Fusarium
   isolates from Australia, Europe, and North America (Vesonder et al.,
   1991) and in New Zealand (diMenna et al., 1997), the Philippines,
   Thailand, and Indonesia (Yamashita et al., 1995). The occurrence of
   zearalenone in food and feed was also demonstrated in South America
   (Dalcero et al., 1997; Molto et al., 1997), Africa (Doko et al.,
   1996), China and the former USSR (Ueno et al., 1986).  Fusarium
   isolates from bananas can also produce zearalenone

InChl Key
MBMQEIFVQACCCH-QBODLPLBSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1CCCC(=O)CCCC=CC2=CC(=CC(=C2C(=O)O1)O)O
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@H]1CCCC(=O)CCC/C=C/C2=CC(=CC(=C2C(=O)O1)O)O
Solubility ( literature )

Zearalenone is slightly soluble in hexane and progressively more in benzene, acetonitrile, dichloromethane, methanol, acetone. In water: 20 mg/L .

Compound Classification
  • Mycotoxin
  • A resorcylic acid lactone
  •  
  •  
  • Sexual reproduction in Fusarium is regulated by the fungal sex hormone zearalenone, which is known to be synthesized only by species of Gibberella zeae (Fusarium roseum)

 

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Retest time
3 Years
Applications

The resorcylic acid lactones have estrogenic activity. Zearalenone and its derivates were used as veterinary anabolic or estrogen substitutes.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Not for veterinary use!
Warnings

Warning or harmful

  • Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), category 4
  • Skin irritation, categories 2, 3
  • Eye irritation, category 2A
  • Skin sensitization, category 1
  • Specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, category 3
    • Respiratory tract irritation
    • Narcotic effects

Corrosive

  • Skin corrosion, categories 1A, 1B, 1C
  • Serious eye damage, category 1
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Not hazardous for transport
Fermentek Product Category
Signal to sort
Z

Penicillic acid

Penicillic acid
Molecular Formula
C8H10O4
M.W.
170.16
CAS number
90-65-3
Source
Penicillium Cyclopium
Fermentek product Code
PEN-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
white to light yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ ml Dichloromethane
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

  • 3-Methoxy-5-methyl-4-oxo-2,5-hexadienoic acid

HSDB 3523

RTECS  MM2625000

EU number
202-008-1
Chemical name
3-Methoxy-5-methyl-4-oxo-2,5-hexadienoic acid
Description

Penicillic acid is a polyketide mycotoxin which induces single and double strand DNA breaks. It inhibits GDP-mannose dehydrogenase. It inhibits also muscle aldose dehydrogenase, lactate dhydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

InChl Key
VOUGEZYPVGAPBB-XQRVVYSFSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC(=C)C(=O)C(=CC(=O)O)OC
Isomeric SMILES
CC(=C)C(=O)/C(=C/C(=O)O)/OC
Solubility ( literature )

Water, Ethanol, Dichloromethane.

Compound Classification
  • Lactone Mycotoxin
  • Hexanoic Acid
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Open carefully.
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Retest time
3 Years
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since

Ochratoxin B

Ochratoxin B
Molecular Formula
C20H19NO6
M.W.
369.37
CAS number
4825-86-9
Source
Aspergillus ochraceus
Fermentek product Code
OCB-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White to pale yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
205°C-222ºC
Names and identifiers

Synonyms 

  • OTB
  • N-[(3R)-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-2-benzopyran-7-carbonyl]-L-phenylalanine

HSDB 3438

CHEBI 141524

RTECS SQ7331100

EU number
621-766-8
Description

Ochratoxin B: mycotoxin; dechlorinated derivate of Ochratoxin A.

InChl Key
DAEYIVCTQUFNTM-ABAIWWIYSA-N
Canonical SMILES
CC1CC2=C(C(=C(C=C2)C(=O)NC(CC3=CC=CC=C3)C(=O)O)O)C(=O)O1
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@@H]1CC2=C(C(=C(C=C2)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC3=CC=CC=C3)C(=O)O)O)C(=O)O1
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO, Methanol, Ethanol, Dichloromethane.Not soluble in water

Compound Classification

Ochratoxin B: mycotoxin. oumarin mycotoxin.

Calcium channel blocker.

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Retest time
3 Years
Applications

Ochratoxin B is the non-chlorinated analogue of the much more extensively studied Ochratoxin A. It is co-produced by the same species of Aspergillus and Penicillium that are associated with food spoilage. Ochratoxin B has received little focused investigation. Its mode of action and its potential hazards might have been inferred from Ochratoxin-A.

Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
10 ppm
Ingredient Other
Acetonitrile - CAS 75-05-8
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
to 100%
Available since
Fermentek Product Category
Signal to sort
O

Moniliformin

Moniliformin (as Sodium salt)
Molecular Formula
C4HO3Na
M.W.
120.04
CAS number
71376-34-6
Source
Fusarium moniliforme
Fermentek product Code
MOF-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Yellow crystalline solid
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear yellowish solution at 10 mg/ml of DMSO or Methanol
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

1-Hydroxycyclobut-1-ene-3,4-dione Sodium salt

RTECS: GU1815000

EU number
71376-34-6
Description

Mycotoxin formed in many cereals by a number of Fusarium species that include F.moniliforme, F. avenaceum. F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum . Moniliformin is supplied as sodium salt of 1-hydroxycyclobut-1-ene-3,4-dione.

InChl Key
FERDNJVXTWPNSA-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Canonical SMILES
C1=C(C(=O)C1=O)[O-].[Na+]
Solubility ( literature )

Moniliformin is soluble in water and polar solvents, such as methanol.

Compound Classification

cyclobutane mycotoxin

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Retest time
3 Years
Disclaimer
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions.
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Fermentek Product Category
Signal to sort
M