Aflatoxins are naturally occurring secondary metabolite poisonous toxins that are produced by strains of fungi species Aspergillus worldwide. This toxin was discovered 30 years ago in England during a poisonous outbreak that led to the death of over 100,000 Turkeys. The word “Aflatoxins” originated from the name of one of the fungi producing it, Aspergillus flavus. They contaminate 25% food crops worldwide and therefore pose a serious health risk on both humans and animals. The main aflatoxigenic fungi which are A flavus, A parasiticus, and A nomius are majorly found in soils and decaying vegetation. They occur in warmer parts of the world such as the tropical region where temperature and moisture are high. These fungi survive temperature ranges from 12 – 48 ᵒC and at a humidity range of 0.83 – 0.97.

Physico-chemical properties of aflatoxins

Aflatoxins are chemically stable, and they do not undergo degradation under a normal cooking temperature which makes them difficult to eliminate once they are present in food. They are colorless, odorless and tasteless. They are slightly soluble in water, insoluble in non-polar solvents but soluble in polar organic solvents.

More than 14 isomers of aflatoxins have been discovered but four - B1, B2, G1, and G2 pose several health risks on humans and animals. These 4 isomers are found mostly in nuts, grains, and their byproducts. Also, the hydroxylated metabolite of B1 known as M1 is found in milk and milk products.

Aflatoxin B1

Toxicity of aflatoxins

Acute toxicity of these toxins in human can result in vomiting, jaundice, and fever while the chronic toxicity can cause liver carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic. In animals, they cause liver and kidney damage, impaired productivity, stunted growth and in the case of chickens, there is a decrease in egg production.

Aflatoxins are produced in the laboratory for research purposes by fermentation of A flavus or A parasiticus on media. They are extracted by solvents and purified by chromatography method.

Fermentek, a biotechnology company are expert in production of different types aflatoxins and their metabolites in bulk commercially for research purposes. This company focused on production of ten[OI3]  different aflatoxins. They include:  aflatoxicol, a reduced form of aflatoxins B1 used for cancer research purpose, aflatoxin B1, B2, M1, M2 - they are used for food toxicity test.

Aflatoxin Q1

Aflatoxin Q1
Molecular Formula
C17H12O7
M.W.
328.27
CAS number
52819-96-2
MSDS
Source
Synthetic
Fermentek product Code
AFQ-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Off White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear light yellow solution at 1mg/ml Chloroform
Names and identifiers

Synonyms

  • Cyclopenta[c]furo[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-h][1]benzopyran-1,11-dione, 2,3,6a,9a-tetrahydro-3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-, (3S,6aR,9aS)-
  • 3-Hydroxy-4-methoxy-2,3,6a,9a-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]furo[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-h][1]benzopyran-1,11-dione

 IUPAC Name: 

  • (3S,6aR,9aS)-3-Hydroxy-4-methoxy-2,3,6a,9a-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]furo[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-h][1]benzopyran-1,11-dione

RTECS  GY1800000

EU number
637-071-8
Description

Aflatoxin Q1 is a  derivate of Aflatoxin B1. It is created in human body as a in-vivo detoxification process of Aflatoxin B1.

 
InChl Key
GYNOTJLCULOEIM-XKRJZGAWSA-N
Canonical SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C(C(=O)CC3O)C(=O)OC2=C4C5C=COC5OC4=C1
Isomeric SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C(C(=O)C[C@@H]3O)C(=O)OC2=C4[C@@H]5C=CO[C@@H]5OC4=C1
Solubility ( literature )

May be dissolved in DCM, DMSO or Methanol

Compound Classification

Furano-furano-Benzopyran mycotoxin Aflatoxin

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Retest time
3Y
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Shipped at ambient temperature
Shipped in glass vials
Transport safety: class 6.1 PG II
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
PG
Title
HS FER recommendation
Value
Laboratory reagents or reference material-38220000
Title
toxicity by EC
Value
Acute Tox. 2, H300, H300||Acute Tox. 2, H310, H310||Acute Tox. 2, H330, H330||Carc. 1B, H350, H350
Signal to sort
A

Sterigmatocystin

Sterigmatocystin
Molecular Formula
C18H12O6
M.W.
324.28
CAS number
10048-13-2
MSDS
Source
Aspergillus versicolor
Fermentek product Code
STR-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Yellow to slight yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
240°C-246°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 5mg/ml of Acetone; Clear colorless solution at 10mg/ml of DMSO
Names and identifiers

Systematic name:    8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3a,12c-dihydro-7H-furo[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-c]xanthen-7-one

RTECS:                     LV1750000

RTECS#:                 LV1750000

HSDB:                      HSDB3540

EU number
233-158-6
Description

Sterigmatocystin is a mycotoxin, inhibitor of DNA synthesis, closely related to Aflatoxins.

InChl Key
UTSVPXMQSFGQTM-DCXZOGHSSA-N
Canonical SMILES
COC1=C2C(=C3C4C=COC4OC3=C1)OC5=C(C2=O)C(=CC=C5)O
Isomeric SMILES
COC1=C2C(=C3[C@@H]4C=CO[C@@H]4OC3=C1)OC5=C(C2=O)C(=CC=C5)O
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO, Methanol, Ethanol, Acetone.

Compound Classification

Chemical classification:

Xanthones
    Sterigmatocystin

Bioactivity classification:

Toxin affecting liver and kidneys
Sterigmatocystin

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Protect from moisture
Open carefully.
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Not for veterinary use!
Warnings

Health-Hazard

  • Respiratory sensitization, category 1
  • Germ cell mutagenicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Carcinogenicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Reproductive toxicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, categories 1, 2
  • Specific target organ toxicity following repeated exposure, categories 1, 2
  • Aspiration hazard, categories 1, 2

Warning or harmful

  • Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), category 4
  • Skin irritation, categories 2, 3
  • Eye irritation, category 2A
  • Skin sensitization, category 1
  • Specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, category 3
    • Respiratory tract irritation
    • Narcotic effects
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Transport safety: class 6.1 PG III
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
Pg III
Title
Deleted CAS numbers
Value
105521-97-9
Fermentek Product Category
Signal to sort
S

Standard Solution Aflatoxin Mixture

Standard Solution Aflatoxin Mixture
MSDS
Fermentek product Code
STD-010
Brand/grade
Analytical standard
Description

Mixture of four Aflatoxin species: Aflatoxin B1, 0.5 ppm; Aflatoxin B2 , 0.5 ppm Aflatoxin G1, 0.5 ppm Aflatoxin G2, 0.5 ppm in Acetonitrile "HPLC-Supra-Gradient" grade. Ready for Injection into HPLC system; Please refer to the certificate of analysis for the exact concentrations of the toxins in the solution. Available in 1 ml or 5 ml vials.

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Disclaimer
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions.
Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
0.5μg/ml in Acetonitrile
Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
0.5μg/ml in Acetonitrile
Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
0.5μg/ml in Acetonitrile
Ingredient Reference
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
0.5μg/ml in Acetonitrile
Ingredient Other
Acetonitril, HPLC grade
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Ingredient amount
to 100%
Amber-glass vials, 1 or 5 ml

Aflatoxin M2

Aflatoxin M2
Molecular Formula
C17H14O7
M.W.
330.29
CAS number
6885-57-0
MSDS
Source
Semisynthetic
Fermentek product Code
AFM-002
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
Off white to yellowish powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 1mg/ml Dichloromethane
Names and identifiers

4-hydroxyaflatoxin B2

IUPAC:     (6aR,9aR)-9a-Hydroxy-4-methoxy-2,3,6a,8,9,9a-hexahydrocyclopenta[c]furo[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-h]chromene-1,11-dione

RTECS: GY1720000

 

EU number
229-989-9
Chemical name
4-hydroxyaflatoxin B2
Description

A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin, found in milk of cows fed on meal contaminated with aflatoxin B2

InChl Key
OQLKWHFMUPJCJY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Canonical SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C(C(=O)CC3)C(=O)OC2=C4C(=C1)OC5C4(CCO5)O
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO or MeOH

Compound Classification
  • Furano-furano-Benzopyran mycotoxin
  • Aflatoxin class toxin.
Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Protect from moisture
Open carefully.
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Applications

Potent liver carcinogen and DNA-damaging agent.

It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Semi-Synthetic
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
PG I
Signal to sort
A

Aflatoxin M1

Aflatoxin M1
Molecular Formula
C17H12O7
M.W.
328.27
CAS number
6795-23-9
MSDS
Source
Aspergillus flavus
Fermentek product Code
AFM-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White to slight yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 1mg/ml Methanol:ACN (1:1)
Names and identifiers

Chemical names: 4-hydroxyaflatoxin B1

RTECS:  GY1880000

 

EU number
229-865-4
Description

Aflatoxin M1 is a potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin, found in milk of cows fed on meal contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

InChl Key
MJBWDEQAUQTVKK-IAGOWNOFSA-N
Canonical SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C(C(=O)CC3)C(=O)OC2=C4C(=C1)OC5C4(C=CO5)O
Isomeric SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C(C(=O)CC3)C(=O)OC2=C4C(=C1)O[C@@H]5[C@]4(C=CO5)O
Solubility ( literature )

Methanol, DMSO

Compound Classification

Furano-furano-Benzopyranmycotoxin

Aflatoxin

Storage, handling
4°C. Protect from light
Applications

Potent liver carcinogen and DNA-damaging agent.It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals.

Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
PG I
Signal to sort
A

Aflatoxin G1

Aflatoxin G1
Molecular Formula
C17H12O7
M.W.
328.27
CAS number
1165-39-5
MSDS
Source
Aspergillus flavus
Fermentek product Code
AFG-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White to slight yellow powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Solubility test
Clear colorless to yellow solution at 5mg/ml Dichloromethane
Names and identifiers

UPAC(7aR,cis)-3,4,7a,10a-tetrahydro-5-methoxy-1H,12H-furo[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-h]pyrano[3,4-c]chromene-1,12-dione

HSDB 3455

RTECS :    

 

EU number
214-615-9
Description

Aflatoxin G1, potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin

InChl Key
XWIYFDMXXLINPU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Canonical SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C(C(=O)OCC3)C(=O)OC2=C4C5C=COC5OC4=C1
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO or Methanol

Compound Classification

Furano-furano-BenzopyranmycotoxinAflatoxin

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Applications

Potent liver carcinogen and DNA-damaging agent.It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals.

Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
PG I
Title
CN code
Value
2932 20 90
Signal to sort
A

Aflatoxin B2

Aflatoxin B2
Molecular Formula
C17H14O6
M.W.
314.29
CAS number
7220-81-7
MSDS
Source
Aspergillus flavus
Fermentek product Code
AFB-002
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
290°C-316°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 5mg/ml Dichloromethane
Names and identifiers

Dihydroaflatoxin B

HSDB 3454

RTECS: GY1720000

 

 

EU number
230-618-8
Description

8,9-dihidro derivate of aflatoxin B1.

A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin

InChl Key
WWSYXEZEXMQWHT-WNWIJWBNSA-N
Canonical SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C(C(=O)CC3)C(=O)OC2=C4C5CCOC5OC4=C1
Isomeric SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C(C(=O)CC3)C(=O)OC2=C4[C@@H]5CCO[C@@H]5OC4=C1
Solubility ( literature )

DMSO or MeOH

Compound Classification

Furano-furano-Benzopyran-mycotoxin

Aflatoxin

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Other vendors may recommend higher temperatures for storage.
Disclaimer
For Research use only
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
PG I
Signal to sort
A

Aflatoxin B1

Aflatoxin B1
Molecular Formula
C17H12O6
M.W.
312.27
CAS number
1162-65-8
MSDS
Source
Aspergillus flavus
Fermentek product Code
AFB-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
260°C-269°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 10 mg/ml of Dichloromethane
Names and identifiers

2,3,6aα,9aα-tetrahydro-4-methoxycyclopenta[c]furo[2',3':4,5]furo[2,3-h]chromene-1,11-dione

HSDB 3453

EU number
214-603-3
Description

Aflatoxin B1 is a potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals.

InChl Key
OQIQSTLJSLGHID-WNWIJWBNSA-N
Canonical SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C(C(=O)CC3)C(=O)OC2=C4C5C=COC5OC4=C1
Isomeric SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C(C(=O)CC3)C(=O)OC2=C4[C@@H]5C=CO[C@@H]5OC4=C1
Solubility ( literature )

May be dissolved in DCM, DMSO or Methanol

Compound Classification

Furano-furano-Benzopyran mycotoxin Aflatoxin

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Open carefully – Lyophilized solid under vacuum
Retest time
3Y
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Shipped in amber-glass vials
Transport safety: class 6.1 PG I
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
PG I
Title
HS FER recommendation
Value
Laboratory reagents or reference material-38220000
Title
HS--EU
Value
Heterocyclic compounds wi/ oxygen hetero-atom(s) only; lactones; other
Signal to sort
A

Aflatoxicol

Aflatoxicol
Molecular Formula
C17H14O6
M.W.
314.30
CAS number
29611-03-8
MSDS
Source
Semisynthetic
Fermentek product Code
AFX-001
Brand/grade
For research
Appearance
White powder
Purity by HPLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for lot specific data
Purity By TLC
≥98% ; refer to CoA for more data
Melting point
198°C-200°C
Solubility test
Clear colorless solution at 1 mg/ml Methanol
Names and identifiers

 

Synonyms:

  • Aflatoxicol
  • Aflatoxin R0 natural isomer
  • [1S-(1α,6aβ,9aβ)]-2,3,6a,9a-tetrahydro-1-hydroxy-4-methoxycyclopenta[c]furo[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-h][1]benzopyran-11(1H)-one

RTECS:  GY1934000

EU number
249-727-7
Chemical name
(1R,6aS,9aS)-1-hydroxy-4-(methyloxy)-2,3,6a,9a-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]furo[3',2':4,5]furo[2,3-h]chromen-11(1H)-one
Description

Aflatoxicol, (Aflatoxin R0), is a rare natural toxin,  similar but less toxic to Aflatoxin B1

InChl Key
WYIWLDSPNDMZIT-IRWWLHRVSA-N
Canonical SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C(C(CC3)O)C(=O)OC2=C4C5C=COC5OC4=C1
Isomeric SMILES
COC1=C2C3=C([C@H](CC3)O)C(=O)OC2=C4[C@@H]5C=CO[C@@H]5OC4=C1
Solubility ( literature )

May be dissolved in DCM, DMSO or Methanol.(Lit)

Compound Classification
  • Furano-furano-Benzopyran mycotoxin
  • Aflatoxin

 

 

 

 

Storage, handling
Store in a freezer upon arrival, at -10°C to -25°C
Use the original container to store the product.
Keep the lid tightly closed.
Avoid exposing to strong direct light.
Standard reference solution available - inquire
Expiration time
3Y
Retest time
2Y
Disclaimer
Not for Human or Drug use
Not extracted from humans or animals
Refer to MSDS for further safety and handling instructions
Semi-Synthetic
Ingredient type
Fermentek product
Amber-glass vial.
Available since
Title
Transport information
Value
PG I
Title
Deleted CAS Numbers
Value
30811-08-6; 40009-64-1
Signal to sort
A