Trichothecenes area large group of chemically related mycotoxins produced by various fungi - Fusarium, Myrothecium, Spicellum, Stachybotrys, Cephalosporium, Trichoderma, and Trichothecium. These toxins can contaminate agricultural products before harvest and during storage. They are commonly found in cereals
, particularly in wheat, barley, oats and maize.
Classification of Trichothecenes
Trichothecenes are sesquiterpene compounds that consist of the trichothecene core with
epoxy rings at C-12 and -13 positions. They are classified into four groups (A – D) based on the carbonyl group at the 8-position, macrolide rings at 4- and 5-positions, and the number of epoxy rings. Among these groups, group A (such as T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin) didn’t contain carbonyl groups on C-8 and B (such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV)) are characterized with the presence of carbonyl group at C-8. These two groups are the most important and well known. Group C members, such as crotocin, have another epoxy group between the C-7 and C-8 or C-8 and C-9 positions, respectively while those in group D, such as satratoxin G, have a macrocyclic ring between C-4 and C-15.
Toxicity of this toxin varied according to their group and structure. Hemorrhaging, diarrhea, emesis, leucopenia, immunosuppression, decreased reproductive capacity, bone marrow damage, and radiomimetic injury to tissues are the toxicological effect of trichothecenes in animals and human. In plant, they can cause chlorosis, inhibition of root elongation, and dwarfism and act as a virulence factor in wheat head scab
Detection of Trichothecenes
Analytical detection of trichothecenes in foods and body fluids can be achieved by gas chromatography combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, thin-layer chromatography, polarography, radioimmunoassay E, and by HPLC.
Fermentek's Trichothecene products
Fermentek offer different types of trichothecenes that can be used as standard reference materials during calibration and validation of instrument and methods for research purposes. Some of the standard trichothecenes available at the company are: Deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-Acetyl DON, 15 -Acetyl DON, Fusarenon X, HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, 15- Acetoxyscirpenol, T2 Tetrol, T-2 toxin and T2 Triol. These toxins are produced as solution or solid crystalline substance with high analytical grade.