Mycotoxins are defined as naturally occurring substances produced by filamentous fungi (moulds) that arouse toxic response when introduced in low amount to animals through a natural pathway. These fungi are referred to as “toxigenic” fungi. They grow naturally as a form of contaminants on some food crops majorly cereals, nuts and fruit. Conventionally, toxigenic fungi which contaminate crops have been grouped into two groups: “field” and “storage” fungi. Field fungi (such as Cladosporium, Fusarium, Alternaria spp.) get to plant during the developmental stage of the plant; while storage fungi (e.g., Aspergillus; Penicillium spp.) proliferate at storage period.
Mycotoxins which are low weight secondary metabolites produce harmful substances called mycotoxicoses in animals which invariably impact public health. The toxicity effects of mycotoxins could be acute or chronic or both. The most toxic of this toxin is Aflatoxins. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 has being a critical concern. A low-level exposure to aflatoxin for a long term has been associated with different liver diseases such as cancer, jaundice, cirrhosis and hepatis. Also, they are genotoxic (DNA-damaging) carcinogenic and immunosuppressants. Ochratoxin A is another type of mycotoxin that is teratogenic (reproductive), immunosuppressant, and had been proved to have connection with kidney diseases. Other toxigenic fungi are associated with protein synthesis inhibitor, genotoxic, and immune dysfunction.
Prevention and control of mycotoxins in foods have been reduced through detoxification, better agronomic practice and plant breedings.
Fermentek as a global leader in production of high standard reference material for Mycotoxins for food safety analysis and R&D. The company offer more than 50 types of mycotoxins manufactured from different microorganisms. These products are formulated into powdered form or standard solutions with high purity characterized by their melting points
, TLC, HPLC. Although they are majorly used in food safety analysis research, they can also be used as diagnostic material against kidney, liver, immune system, and DNA related diseases.